EBD (event based dosing) – also called on-demand dosing

EBD (event based dosing) – a term for taking medicines only at times linked to a relevant event. EDD is also called “on-demand dosing”. For example, EBD for PrEP (to prevent HIV transmission) involves taking PrEP before sex and then for several days after …

event-based dosing (EBD)

event-based dosing –  See EBD.

elite controller

elite controller (EC) – an HIV positive person whose immune system keeps viral load undetectable for more than five years without ART. Elite controllers also have a very good CD4 count (always above 500 cells/mm3) that stays at a similar level over many …

escape mutation

escape mutation – a mutation or change in the genetic structure of HIV that makes it easier to evade the persons immune system (rather than a mutation that stops an HIV drug from working).

expanded access (EAP)

expanded access programme (EAP) – a scheme that allows people to access a drug before it has been approved (but when approval is expected). EAPs are for people urgently need treatment as a life-saving option and who do o have …

EVR (early virological response)

EVR (early virological response) – a 99% (2-log ) drop in HCV viral load after 12 weeks of HCV treatment.

ETR (end of treatment response)

ETR (end of treatment response) – having an undetectable HCV viral load at the end of HCV treatment. See SVR.

epoetin-alpha (EPO)

epoetin-alpha (EPO) – a treatment for anaemia, given by injection. Used to reduce side effect of hepatitis C treatment.


encephalopathy – degenerative brain function or disease

Even distribution

even distribution – where most results are in the middle and a roughly similar number of results fall either side. Also called bell-shaped or ‘normal’ distribution.


enzyme – a protein produced in the body that triggers or speeds up other chemical reactions.


encephalitis – inflammation of the brain.

Empirical treatment

empirical treatment – treating an illness based on its symptoms to see if it gets better.

Entry inhibitor (EI)

entry inhibitor (EI) – class of anti-HIV drug. Drug targets in the virus life cycle.