Several genotyping systems offer hope as tropism predictors

Raltegravir (MK-0518) phase 3 trials show successful viral suppression in multi-drug resistant patients

Unexpectedly high rate of K65R mutation in patients failing first-line d4T-containing regimens in Thailand

Multi-drug resistance in vertically infected children

MK-0518 demonstrates potent efficacy in patients with triple-class resistant virus: 24 week results

Cell studies predict cross-resistance among integrase inhibitors

Report from the 10th Annual UK Resistance Meeting, 21 September 2006, London

15th International Drug Resistance Workshop, 13-17 June 2006, Sitges, Spain

Resistance implications of monotherapy with lopinavir/r (Kaletra)

Ritonavir reduces virological failure and resistance in treatment naive patients treated with atazanavir

Resistance to darunavir (TMC-114): predicting responses for treatment experienced patients

Epidemiological studies and transmission of resistance: evidence for optimism – or issues with interpretation?

K103N containing variants persist longer in women with subtype D and with higher viral loads

No subtype-based differences in baseline levels of K103N-containing variants in women receiving single dose nevirapine

Phenotypic NNRTI resistance and genetic diversity in antiretroviral naive women

High prevalence of the K65R mutation in Botswana patients treated with ddI/d4T-based regimens

Potential for easier selection of K65R mutation with tenofovir pressure in subtype C HIV-1 isolates

Categorisation of transmitted HIV drug resistance using the WHO/CDC HIV drug resistance threshold survey method may be useful in resource limited settings

Limitations in online tools to identify HIV-1 subtypes

Resistance implications from PrEP and microbicide studies in macaques

Low-level resistance linked to treatment failure: a role for more sensitive testing for naive patients

Testing for resistance after starting treatment

Web resources for HIV-1 genotypic-resistance test interpretation

Association between HIV subtype and detection of K103N

Cost effectiveness of resistance testing for treatment-naive patients

Highlights of HIV drug resistance studies presented at the 3rd IAS Conference

Interaction between tenofovir and ddI in triple-nucleoside combinations: role of M184V in explaining resistance on failure

Predicting clinical responses to ddI from genotypic resistance

Under-detection of transmission of transmitted resistance and impact on treatment response

Risk of death in UK after diagnosis of 3-class resistance

Tenofovir, nucleosides, and non-nucleosides

Protease inhibitors

CCR5 antagonists

Another chance for 3TC in patients with M184V mutation?

Risk of NNRTI-resistance during STI: implications for SMART and other STI studies

Persistent nevirapine resistance following mother to child transmission interventions

Tipranavir resistance and viral response: L90M did not reduce response, recommendation to use with T-20

Resistance in the UK: new approach to epidemiological studies

Low AZT activity against HIV-2 infection

No evidence for cross resistance between nevirapine and d4T

Experimental compounds to target viral expression in latent cells

Case of MDR reinfection with MDR virus

Kaletra therapy fails woman with subtype C virus with multiple mutations

Understanding developments in HIV drug resistance for new drugs and targets — atazanavir, fusion (T-20) and receptor inhibitors

Summary of resistance studies at Retrovirus

XII International HIV Drug Resistance Workshop, Los Cabos, Mexico, 10-14 June 2003

Transmission of drug resistance – at 11% in Europe and 17% in the UK

HIV coinfection, reinfection and superinfection

Single-dose nevirapine resistance in over 75% of mothers

Transmission of drug resistant virus does not revert to wild-type and does not appear ‘less fit’

Standard genotype assays may miss 75% of mutations when present in less than 35% of plasma sample

Low-level resistance and minority populations: cross resistance between nevirapine and efavirenz occurs even in the absence of genotypic mutations found using population sequencing

Persistent effect of d4T and 3TC, but not NNRTIs in the presence of associated genotypic mutations

Replicative capacity results complicated by minority wild-type virus

Tenofovir, resistance and K65R and concomitant nucleosides

Response to STI is determined by virus rather than immunological response

Why resistance rarely develops with viral suppression <50 copies/mL

Long-term persistence of distinct mutations in genital tract

Resistance summary of new PIs: atazanavir and tipranavir

Study reveals new reverse transcriptase mutations

Nevirapine resistance – the cautionary tales continue

Subtle decreases in stavudine (d4t, Zerit) phenotypic susceptibility predict poor virologic response to stavudine monotherapy in zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir)-experienced patients

Medical care providers have very limited knowledge of resistance-associated drug mutations

Inhibitory quotient useful as indicator of effective protease inhibitor therapy

The advantages of fosamprenavir; comparing saquinavir/r to lopinavir/r; reducing viral load to <3 copies; AZT-d4T cross resistance; and rising HCV rates

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