The following few pages focus on lifestyle changes that can affect your health.

This is because these have been highlighted in many research studies in the general population, see Table 9.

As we get older, these risks and the potential to change them are just as important for HIV positive people.

The risk for all the health complications in Table 9 can be reduced by the linked lifestyle change.

See these links for more detailed information about diet and exercise.

Table 9: Lifestyle factors linked to serious health problems

Risk factor Health conditions
Cigarette smoking Heart disease, stroke, diabetes, numerous cancers (lung, oesophagus, mouth, pharynx, stomach, liver, pancreas, cervix, bladder, kidney, colorectal), leukaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), other respiratory diseases, TB.
High blood glucose (sugar) Heart disease, stroke, diabetes, renal failure, some cancers (colorectal, breast, pancreatic).
High LDL cholesterol Cardiovascular disease (heart and stroke).
High blood pressure Heart disease, stroke, hypertension, renal disease.
Obesity (high BMI) Heart disease and stroke, diabetes, some cancers (colon, kidney, breast, gallbladder).
High trans fats in diet Heart disease
High saturated fat diet Heart disease
Low omega-3 in diet Heart disease
High dietary salt Heart disease, stroke, hypertension, stomach cancer, renal failure.
Low dietary fruit and vegetables Heart disease and stroke, some cancers (colorectal, stomach, lung, oesophagus, mouth and throat).
Alcohol use (above recommended levels) Heart disease and stroke, hypertension, diabetes, some cancers (liver, mouth, throat, breast, oesophagus, colorectal), cirrhosis, pancreatitis, road injuries, suicide, homicide and other injuries, alcohol use disorders.
Low physical activity Heart disease and stroke, breast and colon cancers, diabetes.

1 July 2012