Selected words and phrases

CMV (cytomegalovirus) – a viral infection. CMV retinitis is an HIV-related infection that can cause permanent vision loss in someone with a CD4 count that is below 50 cells/mm3.

More information on CMV.

informed consent – a document that every person who participates in research is required to sign before entering the study. It outlines the details of a the study, including the known risks and benefits or any intervention. It also explains what is required during the study in terms of additional tests and clinic visits.

DAA (direct acting antiviral) – new hepatitis C drugs that work directly against the hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Since 2014, the following DAAs and fixed dose combinations have been approved – and more are in development. Links are to the EMA website for information on each DAA.

Previously, HCV was treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV).

Even though HCV guidelines now only recommend oral DAA treatment, the high price of these medicines means that in many countries they are only available to people who have advanced liver damage.

drug resistant mutation – a mutation or change that occurs in the HIV genome that reduces a drugs ability to work.

cross-resistance – when resistance to one drug causes resistance to other similar drugs. This commonly happens for every class or family of HIV drugs: nukes, NNRTIs, PIs, integrase inhibitors, and some entry inhibitors.