icterus – medical term for jaundice (yellowing skin)

IDU – injecting drug user

IM (intra-muscular) – injecting into a muscle. See IV (intravenous) and SC (sub-cutaneous).

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome – see: IRIS

immune system – the system that your body uses to fight infections.

In utero is within the uterus or womb before the onset of labour.

in vitro – a study in a test tube. Literally, ‘in glass’.

in-vivo – a study carried out in humans.

induction (in the liver) – refers to the body processing a drug more quickly by inducing (or increasing) more of the enzymes that clear the drug. This leads to lower drug levels.

informed consent – a document that every person who participates in research is required to sign before entering the study. It outlines the details of a the study, including the known risks and benefits or any intervention. It also explains what is required during the study in terms of additional tests and clinic visits.

inhibition (in the liver) – refers to the body processing a drug more slowly by inhibiting (or reducing) the enzymes that clear the drug. This leads to higher drug levels.

INI (integrase inhibitor) – type of HIV drug.

Drug targets in the virus life cycle.

insulin – a hormone that helps the body turn sugar into energy. Low insulin sensitivity is when the body uses insulin less well than usual (this is also called insulin resistance).

integrase inhibitor – a type of HIV drug that stops HIV genetic material from ‘integrating’ into the DNA in a cell.

This is a relatively new family of HIV drugs.

Raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir are all integrase inhibitors.

interaction – when two drugs react to increase or decrease one or both drugs, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful.

interferon – see pegylated interferon.

Intermediate level resistance – when a drug still has some impact on HIV, but when this is reduced (compared to wild-type HIV) because there is some drug resistance.

internal fetal labour monitoring – where an electrode is inserted through the vagina and placed on the baby’s scalp to record the baby’s heart rate during labour.

intrapartum refers to the last stages of during pregnancy when the baby is born. These are labour and delivery (or chold birth). Intrapartum can refer to both the baby and the mother.

See: antepartum and postpartum.

iPrEP (intermittent Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) – using HIV drugs to before a possible exposure to HIV, to reduce the chance of infection. iPrEP refers to taking a reducing dosing shecdule based on when you are likely to be exposed. PrEP usually refers to a daily treatment.