Selected words and phrases

diabetes – when the body either does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that helps the body turn sugar into energy) or is not responding to insulin (insulin resistance). There are two main types of diabetes and they have different mechanisms and treatments.

Type-1 is mainly reported in children but can also occur in adults and is linked to genetic risks.

Type-2 is mainly reported in adults (but increasingly in children) and is more commonly related to lifestyle factors including diet, exercise, weight/BMI. Some medications can increase the risk of Type-2 diabetes.

Diabetes can also be a side effect, including from some early HIV drugs, and this is sometimes referred to as a third type. This is because it was primarily caused as a side effect, rather than being driven by either lifestyle factors or genetics.

Other commonly-used drugs that can affect glucose regulation include corticosteroids and some drugs to reduce high blood pressure, or lipids.

IV (intravenous) – injecting into a vein. See SC (sub-cutaneous) and IM (intra-muscular).

Cmin or Ctrough – lowest concentration of a drug just before the next dose.

What happens when you take a drug?

natural history – the pattern a disease follows if it is not treated. The natural history of HIV includes very high viral load in the first weeks or months of infection (seroconversion), a drop in CD4 counts that then recovers, and then a slower progressive increase in viral load and decrease in CD4 count, that eventually lead to opportunistic infections.

Natural history graph and more details.

quantitative (in a study) – where what is being measured has a numerical value or fits a pre-defined scale or range of responses.