Guides

References: guide to side effects and other complications (August 2016)

More than 400 references were used in preparing the information in this i-Base guide including at least 50 new references since the previous update.

HIV and your quality of life: Side effects and other complications.

Whenever possible, we used publications that are accessible free as open access online. Where this was not possible, we include links to the study abstract. Many publications provide free access to full text articles after 1–2 years of the publication date.

This is not a comprehensive list of sources and it will be updated as new studies are published. Some references have short notes on the specific reason we have included them. Many of these articles include 20-40 references of their own. These are a good pointer for further information.

General

British HIV Association guidelines: Treatment of HIV-1 positive adults with antiretroviral therapy (2015)
http://www.bhiva.org/HIV-1-treatment-guidelines.aspx

UK National Guideline for the Use of HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Following Sexual Exposure (PEPSE) 2015
http://www.bhiva.org/PEPSE-guidelines.aspx

European Guidelines for treatment of HIV-infected adults in Europe (EACS). Version 8.0, October 2015.
http://www.eacsociety.org/guidelines/eacs-guidelines/eacs-guidelines.html

Hopkins HIV Guide (online management guide, requires one-time free registration).
http://www.hopkins-hivguide.org/

British HIV Association guidelines for the routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-infected individuals. (2011)
http://www.bhiva.org/Monitoring.aspx

US guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. (July 2016)
http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/

Individual drugs. Summary or prescribing information for individual antiretroviral drugs. All available on EMA or FDA websites.

Quality of life

Briongos Figuero LS et al. Assessment of factors influencing health-related quality of life in HIV-infected patients. HIV Medicine, electronic publication ahead of print. Article first published online: 28 JUN 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00844.x
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00844.x/full

Life expectancy

The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies. The Lancet, Volume 372:293-299., 26 July 2008
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673608611137/abstract

Lohse N et al. Survival of Persons with and without HIV Infection in Denmark, 1995-2005. Annals 2007 146: I-39.
http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/abstract/146/2/87

Hill A et al. A normal life expectancy, despite HIV infection? AIDS: 19 June 2010 – Volume 24 – Issue 10 – p 1583-1584 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833ac7d4.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Citation/2010/06190/A_normal_life_expectancy,_despite_HIV_infection_.21.aspx

Reporting side effects

MHRA: What is the Yellow Card Scheme?
http://yellowcard.mhra.gov.uk/the-yellow-card-scheme/

Side effects and adherence

Ammassari A et al. Self-Reported Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Influence Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Persons With HIV Infection. JAIDS: 15 December 2001 – Volume 28 – Issue 5 – pp 445-449.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2001/12150/Self_Reported_Symptoms_and_Medication_Side_Effects.6.aspx

Duran S et al. Failure to maintain long-term adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: the role of lipodystrophy. AIDS: 7 December 2001 – Volume 15 – Issue 18 – pp 2441-2444.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2001/12070/Failure_to_maintain_long_term_adherence_to_highly.12.aspx

Protopopescu C et al. Prolonged viral suppression over a 12-year follow-up of HIV-infected patients: the persistent impact of adherence at 4 months after initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in the ANRS CO8 APROCO-COPILOTE cohort. JAIND. Pub ahead of print (January 2017). doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001249.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/publishahead/Prolonged_viral_suppression_over_a_12_year.97083.aspx

Gender and racial differences

Hatleberg CI et al. Gender differences in HIV-positive persons in use of cardiovascular disease-related interventions: D:A:D study. HIV Drug Therapy Glasgow Congress, 2-6 November 2014. Oral abstract O324. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2014, 17(Suppl 3):19516
http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/19516
Webcast: Wednesday 5 November, Co-morbidities and Complications Part II.
http://hivglasgow.org/scientificprogramme#wednesday

Kempf M-C et al. Gender Differences in Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Treatment Regimens. JAIDS: November 2009 – Volume 52 – Issue 3 – pp 336-341, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b628be.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2009/11010/Gender_Differences_in_Discontinuation_of.6.aspx

Tedaldi E et al. Ethnicity race and gender: differences in serious adverse events among participants in an antiretroviral initiation trial: results of CPCRA 058 (FIRST Study). JAIDS: 1 April 2008 – Volume 47 – Issue 4 – pp 441-448, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181609da8.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2008/04010/Ethnicity,_Race,_and_Gender__Differences_in.5.aspx

Barber T et al. Outcomes of first line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among men and women in the UK CHIC study. 12th European AIDS Conference (EACS), 11-14 November 2009, Cologne. Abstract PE10.4/1.
http://www.abstractserver.com/eacsabstractarchive/absabstract.php?abid=3386

Koegl C et al. No subjective or objective gender differences in ART-naïve patients initiating a lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen. 48 week data from the German STAR and STELLA cohorts. 12th European AIDS Conference (EACS), 11-14 November 2009, Cologne. Abstract PE 7.9/19.
http://www.abstractserver.com/eacsabstractarchive/absabstract.php?abid=3479

Johnson M et al. Gender based differences in antiretroviral-naïve patients treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors: results from the CASTLE study through 96 weeks. 12th European AIDS Conference (EACS), 11-14 November 2009, Cologne. Abstract PE7.3/8.
http://www.abstractserver.com/eacsabstractarchive/absabstract.php?abid=3553

Squires K et al. Rates and predictors of adherence in treatment experienced women and men in GRACE (Gender, Race And Clinical Experience). 12th European AIDS Conference (EACS), 11-14 November 2009, Cologne. Abstract PE10.1/2.
http://www.abstractserver.com/eacsabstractarchive/absabstract.php?abid=3553

TDM and drug levels

Lab 21: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
http://www.lab21.com/ClinicalLab/Services/HealthcareProfessionals/DRUGMANAGEMENT/HIVTherapeuticDrugMonitoring.aspx

Back D, Khoo S. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in the management of HIV infection. (2008)
http://www.touchbriefings.com/pdf/3242/khoo.pdf (PDF)

Boffito M et al. Therapeutic drug monitoring and drug-drug interactions involving antiretroviral drugs. Special article – Part 2. Antiviral Therapy10:469-477.
http://www.intmedpress.com/serveFile.cfm?sUID=bdadf9f9-b817-463d-a855-2f9e7be65e6a

Best BM et al. A randomized controlled trial of therapeutic drug monitoring in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-1-infected patients. JAIDS: 1 December 2007 – Volume 46 – Issue 4 – pp 433-442. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318156f029.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2007/12010/A_Randomized_Controlled_Trial_of_Therapeutic_Drug.9.aspx

Fabbiani M et al. Pharmacokinetic variability of antiretroviral drugs and correlation with virological outcome: 2 years of experience in routine clinical practice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Jul;64(1):109-17. Epub 2009 Apr 27.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19398461

La Porte CJM et al. Updated guideline to perform therapeutic drug monitoring for antiretroviral agents. Rev Antiviral Ther 2006; 3: 3-14.

Ray JE et al. Therapeutic drug monitoring of atazanavir: surveillance of pharmacotherapy in the clinic. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Volume 60, Issue 3, pages 291-299, September 2005. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02413.x.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.13652125.2005.02413.x/abstract

Ståhle L et al. Efavirenz plasma concentrations in HIV-infected patients: inter- and intraindividual variability and clinical effects. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: June 2004 – Volume 26 – Issue 3 – pp 267-270.
http://journals.lww.com/drug-monitoring/Abstract/2004/06000/Efavirenz_Plasma_Concentrations_in_HIV_Infected.8.aspx

Saitoh A et al. Efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-infected children are associated with CYP2B6-G516T polymorphism. JAIDS: 2007 Jul 1;45(3):280-5.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2007/07010/Efavirenz_Pharmacokinetics_in_HIV_1_Infected.5.aspx

Genetics, drug levels and side effects

Cianfriglia M et al. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are substrates for the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein. Retrovirology 2007, 4:17doi:10.1186/1742-4690-4-17.
http://www.retrovirology.com/content/4/1/17

Evans WE et al. Drug disposition, drug targets, and side effects. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:538-549. February 6, 2003.
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra020526

Novoa SR et al. G516T polymorphism at the CYP2B6 isoenzyme significantly influences efavirenz plasma levels and the risk of neurological symptoms. 12th CROI, 22–25 February 2005, Boston. Poster abstract 652.
http://www.retroconference.org/2005/cd/Abstracts/24854.htm

Vitezica ZG et al. HLA-DRB1*01 associated with cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by nevirapine and efavirenz. AIDS: 19 February 2008 – Volume 22 – Issue 4 – p 540-541. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f37812. Research Letter.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/02190/HLA_DRB1_01_associated_with_cutaneous.15.aspx

Switching treatment for side effects

Switch nevirapine to efavirenz after rash: “People with nevirapine rash have a 10% risk of rash if they switch to efavirenz.”

Manosuthi W et al. Incidence and risk factors of rash associated with efavirenz in HIV-infected patients with preceding nevirapine-associated rash. HIV Medicine. Volume 7, Issue 6, pages 378-382, September 2006.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2006.00396.x/full

Efavirenz to nevirapine

Ward DJ et al. Switch from efavirenz to nevirapine associated with resolution of efavirenz-related neuropsychiatric adverse events and improvement in lipid profiles. AIDS Patient Care and STDs Volume: 20 Issue 8: August 7, 2006.
http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/apc.2006.20.542

Winston A et al. Dose escalation or immediate full dose when switching from efavirenz to nevirapine-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals? AIDS: 20 February 2004 – Volume 18 – Issue 3 – pp 572-574. Research letter.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2004/02200/Dose_escalation_or_immediate_full_dose_when.29.aspx

Mehta U et al. Is it safe to switch between efavirenz and nevirapine in the event of toxicity? The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 733 – 738, November 2007. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(07)70262-1.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099%2807%2970262-1/fulltext?_eventId=login

PI to nevirapine

Cooper CL. Evaluation of nevirapine-switch strategies for HIV treatment. HIV Medicine, Volume 7, Issue 8, pages 537-543, November 2006. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2006.00418.x.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2006.00418.x/full

3TC to FTC

Rosario Palacios R et al. Minor emtricitabine intolerance in treatment-stable patients switched from tenofovir/lamivudine to a fixed-dose combination of tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada). Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. doi:10.1093/jac/dkm489.
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/dkm489v1

Pollock K et al. Emtricitabine intolerance in treatment-experienced patients switched from lamivudine: a method of assessing toxicity. J Antimicrob Chemother (2006) 58:227-8.
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/58/1/227?ijkey=7b6f8df8c83bdd5781b49b2c50d3335e0d3938a3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Villar del Sax S et al. Tolerability of emtricitabine (FTC) in HIV infected subjects who switch from lamivudine (3TC) to FTC. IAS 2007, Sydney, Poster MOPEB012.
http://www.ias2007.org/PAG/Abstracts.aspx?AID=3484

Diarrhoea and wasting

Carroccio A et al. Efficacy of oral pancreatic enzyme therapy for the treatment of fat malabsorption in HIV-infected patients. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 15, Issue 10, pages 1619–1625, October 2001.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2036.2001.01070.x/abstract

Gold J et al. Effects of nandrolone decanoate compared with placebo or testosterone on HIV-associated wasting. Volume 7, Issue 3, pages 146–155, April 2006.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2006.00358.x/abstract

Guinane S et al. The effectiveness of probiotics for managing diarrhoea in people with HIV infection: a critically appraised topic. HIV Medicine Volume 14, Issue 3, pages 187–190, March 2013. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01042.x.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01042.x/abstract 

Guerrant RL et al. IDSA Practice Guidelines for the Management of Infectious Diarrhea. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001;32:331–351. 1058-4838/2001/3203-0001$03.00, DOI: 10.1086/318514.
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/318514

Martin TCS et al. Pancreatic insufficiency in patients with HIV infection: role of didanosine questioned. HIV Medicine. Volume 14, Issue 3, pages 161–166, March 2013. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01047.x.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01047.x/abstract 

Price DA et al. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in HIV-positive patients. HIV Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 1, pages 33–36, January 2005 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2005.00263.x.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2005.00263.x/abstract

Sharma R et al. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, oral mucositis, and diarrhoea. The Lancet Oncology, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 93 – 102, February 2005, doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(05)01735-3.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045%2805%2901735-3/fulltext

Spacek LA et al. Hopkins HIV Guide: Diarrhoea.
http://www.hopkins-hivguide.org/diagnosis/organ_system/gastrointestinal_hepatobiliary/diarrhea.html?&contentInstanceId=9261

ThomasPD et al. Enteric viral infections as a cause of diarrhoea in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV Medicine, Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 19–24, October 1999.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1468-1293.1999.00004.x/full

Nausea and vomiting

See General.

Fatigue (feeling tired)

Jong E et al. Predictors and treatment strategies of HIV-related fatigue in the combined antiretroviral therapy era. AIDS: 19 June 2010 – Volume 24 – Issue 10 – p 1387-1405. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328339d004.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2010/06190/Predictors_and_treatment_strategies_of_HIV_related.1.aspx

Smith BA et al. Aerobic exercise: effects on parameters related to fatigue, dyspnea, weight and body composition in HIV-infected adults. AIDS: 13 April 2001 – Volume 15 – Issue 6 – pp 693-701.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2001/04130/Aerobic_exercise__effects_on_parameters_related_to.4.aspx

Skin problems: rash, dry skin (mainly HIV, low CD4, OI and IDV)

Nevirapine rash

Antinori A et al. Female sex and the use of anti-allergic agents increase the risk of developing cutaneous rash associated with nevirapine therapy. AIDS: 17 August 2001 – Volume 15 – Issue 12 – pp 1579-1581. Research letter.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2001/08170/Female_sex_and_the_use_of_anti_allergic_agents.18.aspx

Kiertiburanakul S et al. Risk factors for nevirapine-associated rash among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts in resource-limited settings. Current HIV Research, Volume 6, Number 1, January 2008 , pp. 65-69(5).
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/chr/2008/00000006/00000001/art00009

Montaner J et al. Randomized controlled study of the effects of a short course of prednisone on the incidence of rash associated with nevirapine in patients infected with HIV-1. JAIDS: 1 May 2003 – Volume 33 – Issue 1 – pp 41-46.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2003/05010/Randomized,_Controlled_Study_of_the_Effects_of_a.7.aspx

Ananworanich J et al. Incidence and risk factors for rash in Thai patients randomized to regimens with nevirapine, efavirenz or both drugs. AIDS: 28 January 2005 – Volume 19 – Issue 2 – p 185-192.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2005/01280/Incidence_and_risk_factors_for_rash_in_Thai.11.aspx

Soriano V et al. Is there cross-toxicity between nevirapine and efavirenz in subjects developing rash? AIDS: 28 July 2000 – Volume 14 – Issue 11 – pp 1672-1673. Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2004/02010/Serious_Adverse_Cutaneous_and_Hepatic_Toxicities.3.aspx

Cotrimoxazole (Septrin) rash

Diphoorn J et al. Incidence, causative factors and mortality rates of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in northern Italy: data from the REACT registry. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2016 Feb;25(2):196-203. doi: 10.1002/pds.3937. Epub 2015 Dec 21.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26687641
Hiransuthikul A et al. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS): 11 years retrospective study in Thailand. Allergol Int. 2016 Oct;65(4):432-438. doi: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.04.001. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
Paitorn L. Co-Trimoxazole-Induced DRESS Syndrome: A Case Report. J Med Assoc Thai. 2016 Feb;99 Suppl 2:S227-30.

Dry skin

Lee D et al. Prevalence and factors associated with dry skin in HIV infection: the FRAM study. AIDS 1 October 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 15 – p 2051-2057, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282eea51a.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2007/10010/Prevalence_and_factors_associated_with_dry_skin_in.7.aspx

Mental health

Wright E, Grund B, Robertson K, et al. No difference between the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on neuropsychological test performance in HIV-positive adults with CD4+ cell counts above 500 cells/µl: the Strategic Timing of Anti Retroviral Treatment (START) Neurology Substudy. 15th European AIDS Conference, October 21-24, 2015, Barcelona. Abstract PS10/6.

Grauer OM et al. Neurocognitive decline in HIV patients is associated with ongoing T-cell activation in the cerebrospinal fluid. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 2015 (18 August). Vol 2. 906–919. DOI: 10.1002/acn3.227.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acn3.227/full

Moulignier A et al. Does HIV Infection Alter Parkinson Disease? JAIDS (2015): 70(2);129–136. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000677. (1 October 2015)
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2015&issue=10010&article=00004&type=Abstract

Basu S et al. Clinical management of depression and anxiety in HIV-infected adults. AIDS: 2 December 2005 – Volume 19 – Issue 18 – p 2057-2067. Editorial Review.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2005/12020/Clinical_management_of_depression_and_anxiety_in.1.aspx

Lampe F et al. Depression and virological status among UK HIV outpatients: results from a multicentre study. 18th BHIVA Conference, 18-20 April 2012, Birmingham. Oral abstract O10. For slides see the ASTRA study website:
http://www.astra-study.org/

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Depression in Adults (update). Depression: the treatment and management of depression in adults. National Clinical Practice Guideline 90. 2009.
http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG90

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Anxiety: management of anxiety (panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, and generalised anxiety disorder) in adults in primary, secondary and community care. National Clinical Practice Guideline Number 22. 2004.
http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG22

Blumenthal JA et al. Effects of Exercise Training on Older Patients With Major Depression Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(19):2349-2356.
http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/159/19/2349

Neidig JL et al. Aerobic Exercise Training for Depressive Symptom Management in Adults Living With HIV Infection. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care – March 2003 (Vol. 14, Issue 2, Pages 30-40, DOI: 10.1177/1055329002250992).
http://www.nursesinaidscarejournal.org/article/S1055-3290%2805%2960062-3/abstract

Lima VD et al. The effect of adherence on the association between depressive symptoms and mortality among HIV-infected individuals first initiating HAART. AIDS: 31 May 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 9 – p 1175-1183 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32811ebf57.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/05310/The_effect_of_adherence_on_the_association_between.11.aspx

Sexual health

Dijkstra, M et al. HIV-1 status is independently associated with decreased erectile function among middle-aged MSM in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy.  AIDS (2018) 32 (9) 1137-1146. (doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001800.01 June 2018). 
https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2018/06010/HIV_1_status_is_independently_associated_with.7.aspx

NICE review. Erectile dysfunction: Alprostadil cream. Evidence summary [ESNM50]. December 2014.
https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/esnm50/chapter/Key-points-from-the-evidence

Anaissie J and Hellstrom WJG. Clinical use of alprostadil topical cream in patients with erectile dysfunction: a review. Res Rep Urol. 2016; 8: 123–131. doi: 10.2147/RRU.S68560 (03 August 2016).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4977016

Scarsi K et al. Efavirenz- but not nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy decreases exposure to the levonorgestrel released from a sub-dermal contraceptive implant. HIV Drug Therapy Glasgow Congress, 2-6 November 2014. Oral abstract 0131. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2014, 17(Suppl 3):19484.
http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/19484

Fakoya A et al. British HIV Association, BASHH and FSRH guidelines for the management of the sexual and reproductive health of , people living with HIV infection 2008. HIV Medicine (2008); 9: 681–720. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00634.x.
http://www.bhiva.org/UKGuidelines2008.aspx

Moreno-Pérez O et al. Risk factors for sexual and erectile dysfunction in HIV-infected men: the role of protease inhibitors. AIDS: January 2010 – Volume 24 – Issue 2 – p 255–264, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328334444b.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2010/01000/Risk_factors_for_sexual_and_erectile_dysfunction.11.aspx

Dukers NHTM et al. The impact of experiencing lipodystrophy on the sexual behaviour and well-being among HIV-infected homosexual men. AIDS: 13 April 2001 – Volume 15 – Issue 6 – pp 812-813. Research letter.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2001/04130/The_impact_of_experiencing_lipodystrophy_on_the.25.aspx

Lamba H et al. Antiretroviral therapy is associated with sexual dysfunction and with increased serum oestradiol levels in men. Int J STD AIDS. 2004 Apr;15(4):234-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15075015

Collazos J et al. Sexual Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients Treated With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. JAIDS,1 November 2002 – Volume 31 – Issue 3 – pp 322-326.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2002/11010/Sexual_Dysfunction_in_HIV_Infected_Patients.8.aspx

Asboe D et al. Sexual dysfunction in HIV-positive men is multi-factorial: a study of prevalence and associated factors. AIDS Care 2007; 19: 955-965.
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a781966255

Ralph D, McNicholas T. UK management guidelines for erectile dysfunction. BMJ 2000; 321: 499-503.
http://www.bmj.com/content/321/7259/499.full

Patient-focused drug development public meeting and scientific workshop on female sexual dysfunction. 27-28 August 2014.
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/NewsEvents/ucm401167.htm

NIH news release. FDA approves first treatment for sexual desire disorder. 18 August 2015.
http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm458734.htm

Flibanserin (Addyi) prescriping information. (2015)
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/022526lbl.pdf (PDF)

Insomnia and sleep disturbance

Lampe F et al. Depression and virological status among UK HIV outpatients: results from a multicentre study. 18th BHIVA Conference, 18-20 April 2012, Birmingham. Oral abstract O10. For slides see the ASTRA study website:
http://www.astra-study.org/

Núñez M et al. Higher efavirenz plasma levels correlate with development of insomnia. JAIDS: 1 December 2001 – Volume 28 – Issue 4 – p 399. Letter.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2001/12010/Higher_Efavirenz_Plasma_Levels_Correlate_With.15.aspx

Reid S et al. Insomnia in HIV Infection: A systematic review of prevalence, correlates, and management. Psychosomatic Medicine 67:260-269 (2005).
http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/content/abstract/67/2/260

Biden C et al. Severe insomnia related to high concentrations of raltegravir. AIDS 2011; 25:725–727.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2011/03130/Severe_insomnia_related_to_high_concentrations_of.27.aspx

de Boer Mark GJ et al. Intolerance of dolutegravir-containing combination antiretroviral therapy regimens in real-life clinical practice. AIDS: 28 November 2016 – Volume 30 – Issue 18 – p 2831–2834 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001279.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2016/11280/Intolerance_of_dolutegravir_containing_combination.11.aspx

CNS side effects: efavirenz, raltegravir, dolutegravir and others

Menard A et al. Neuropsychiatric adverse effects on dolutegravir: an emerging concern in Europe. AIDS 2017; 31:1201–1203.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2017/05150/Neuropsychiatric_adverse_effects_on_dolutegravir__.20.aspx

Fettiplace A et al. Psychiatric symptoms in patients receiving dolutegravir. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017; 74:423–431.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5321108

Hoffmann C et al. Higher rates of neuropsychiatric adverse events leading to dolutegravir discontinuation in women and older patients. HIV Med 2017; 18:56–63.
http://www.natap.org/2016/GLASGOW/GLASGOW_09.htm

Kheloufi F et al. Psychiatric disorders after starting dolutegravir: report of four cases. AIDS 2015; 29:1723–1725.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Citation/2015/08240/Psychiatric_disorders_after_starting_dolutegravir_.21.aspx

Harris M et al. Exacerbation of depression associated with starting raltegravir: a report of four cases. AIDS 2008; 22:1890–1892.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Citation/2008/09120/Exacerbation_of_depression_associated_with.30.aspx

Kheloufi F et al. Neuropsychiatric events and dolutegravir in HIV patients: a worldwide issue involving a class effect. AIDS: 31 July 2017 – Volume 31 – Issue 12 – p 1775–1777. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001557.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Citation/2017/07310/Neuropsychiatric_events_and_dolutegravir_in_HIV.17.aspx

Carey D. Efavirenz 400 mg daily remains non-inferior to 600 mg: 96 week data from the double-blind, placebo-controlled ENCORE1 study. 
 HIV Drug Therapy Glasgow Congress, 2-6 November 2014. Oral abstract 0421. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2014, 17(Suppl 3):19523
http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/19523
http://aps.mediasite.com/mediasite/Play/8387d9c242e0475f9061f79ca65e65e41d?usehtml5=true

Yang S-P et al. Effectiveness of a reduced dose of efavirenz plus 2 NRTIs as maintenance antiretroviral therapy with the guidance of therapeutic drug monitoring. HIV Drug Therapy Glasgow Congress, 2-6 November 2014. Oral abstract 0422. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2014, 17(Suppl 3):19524
http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/19524/html
http://aps.mediasite.com/mediasite/Play/7734fa38a31343a782af56e52278bc7f1d?usehtml5=true

ENCORE1 Study Group. Efficacy of 400 mg efavirenz versus standard 600 mg dose in HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive adults (ENCORE1): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. The Lancet, 26 April 2014;383 (9927):1474 – 1482.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)62187-X/abstract?rss%3Dyes

Smith C et al. Lack of association between use of efavirenz and death from suicide: the D:A:D Study. HIV Drug Therapy Glasgow Congress, 2-6 November 2014. Oral abstract O315. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2014, 17(Suppl 3):19512.
http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/19512
http://www.cphiv.dk/Portals/0/DAD%20O315.pdf (PDF)

Mollan et al. Association between efavirenz as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection and increased risk for suicidal ideation or attempted or completed suicide: an analysis of trial data. Ann Intern Med 2014.161(1):1-10. doi:10.7326/M14-0293.
http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=1884528

Arenas-Pinto A et al. Increased risk of suicidal behaviour with use of efavirenz: results from the START trial. AIDS2016. Durban, South Africa. 18-22 July 2016. Oral abstract THAB0202.
http://programme.aids2016.org/Abstract/Abstract/6199 (Abstract)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0QbideJf8mc (Webcast)

Efavirenz product information. Bristol-Myers Squibb.
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/000249/human_med_001068.jsp&murl=menus/medicines/medicines.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d124&jsenabled=true

Poulsen HD et al. Efavirenz-induced psychosis leading to involuntary detention. AIDS: 14 February 2003 – Volume 17 – Issue 3 – pp 451-453. Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2003/02140/Efavirenz_induced_psychosis_leading_to_involuntary.26.aspx

de la Garza CLS et al. Efavirenz-induced psychosis. AIDS: 28 September 2001 – Volume 15 – Issue 14 – pp 1911-1912. Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2001&issue=09280&article=00033&type=fulltext

Sabato S et al. Efavirenz-induced catatonia. AIDS: 6 September 2002 – Volume 16 – Issue 13 – pp 1841-1842. Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2002/09060/Efavirenz_induced_catatonia.24.aspx

Scourfield A et al. Discontinuation of Atripla as first-line therapy in HIV-1 infected individuals. Concise communication. AIDS, 17 July 2012 – Volume 26 – Issue 11 – p 1399–1401. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328353b047.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2012/07170/Discontinuation_of_Atripla_as_first_line_therapy.10.aspx

Treisman GJ et al. Neurologic and psychiatric complications of antiretroviral agents. AIDS: 14 June 2002 – Volume 16 – Issue 9 – pp 1201-1215, Editorial Review.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2002/06140/Neurologic_and_psychiatric_complications_of.2.aspx

Blanch J et al. Preliminary data of a prospective study on neuropsychiatric side effects after initiation of efavirenz. JAIDS: 1 August 2001 – Volume 27 – Issue 4 – pp 336-343.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2001/08010/Preliminary_Data_of_a_Prospective_Study_on.3.aspx

Boly L et al. Depressive symptoms predict increased incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects in patients treated with efavirenz. JAIDS: 1 August 2006 – Volume 42 – Issue 4 – pp 514-515, doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000221691.61972.34. Letter to the Editor.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2006/08010/Depressive_Symptoms_Predict_Increased_Incidence_of.22.aspx

FTC (see other switching studies)

Pollock K, Stebbing J, Bower M, et al. Emtricitabine intolerance in treatment-experienced patients switched from lamivudine: a method of assessing toxicity. J Antimicrob Chemother (2006) 58:227-8.
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/58/1/227?ijkey=7b6f8df8c83bdd5781b49b2c50d3335e0d3938a3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Peripheral neuropathy

Abrams DI et al. Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurolgy 2007; 68:515-521.
http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/68/7/515

Backonja M et al. Gabapentin dosing for neuropathic pain: evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25(1):81-104.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12637113

Breen RA et al. Increased incidence of peripheral neuropathy with co-administration of stavudine and isoniazid in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS: 31 March 2000 – Volume 14 – Issue 5 – p 615, Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2000/03310/Increased_incidence_of_peripheral_neuropathy_with.17.aspx

Childs EA et al. Plasma viral load and CD4 lymphocytes predict HIV-associated dementia and sensory neuropathy. Neurology 1999, Feb;52(3):607-13.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10025796

Cherry CL et al. Antiretroviral use and other risks for HIV-associated neuropathies in an international cohort. Neurology 2006, Mar 28;66(6):867-73.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567704

Cepeda JA et al. Excess peripheral neuropathy in patients treated with hydroxyurea plus didanosine and stavudine for HIV infection. AIDS:, 18 February 2000 – Volume 14 – Issue 3 – pp 332-333, Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2000/02180/Excess_peripheral_neuropathy_in_patients_treated.22.aspx

Clifford DB et al. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, for the treatment of painful HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy. JAIDS. Volume 59 – Issue 2 – p 126–133, (1 February 2012).
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2012/02010/A_Randomized,_Double_Blind,_Controlled_Study_of.5.aspx

Dorfman D et al. Treatment of painful distal sensory polyneuropathy in HIV-infected patients with a topical agent: results of an open-label trial of 5% lidocaine gel. AIDS: 20 August 1999 – Volume 13 – Issue 12 – p 1589. Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/1999/08200/Treatment_of_painful_distal_sensory_polyneuropathy.25.aspx

Ellis RJ et al. HIV protease inhibitors and risk of peripheral neuropathy. Ann Neurol. 2008 November; 64(5): 566–572., doi: 10.1002/ana.21484.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2605176/

EMA approval documents and SPC for Qutenza capsaicin patch. (May 2009).
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/000909/human_med_001008.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d124&murl=menus/ medicines/medicines.jsp&jsenabled=true

FDA Meeting of the Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee. (9 February 2012)
http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/Calendar/ucm283966.htm

FDA. FDA approves new drug treatment for long-term pain relief after shingles attacks. (17 November 2009). http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2009/ucm191003.htm

FDA briefing document for Qutenza capsaicin patch (186 pages – PDF download)
http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/AnestheticAndLifeSupportDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM290279.pdf

Frank B et al. Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study, BMJ 2008; 336:199. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39429.619653.80. (Published 8 January 2008),
http://www.bmj.com/content/336/7637/199.full?sid=741d4ce9-6ecf-428d-a574-e585f71740ed

Gerbi A et al. Fish Oil Supplementation Prevents Diabetes-Induced Nerve Conduction Velocity and Neuroanatomical Changes in Rats. The Journal of Nutrition Vol. 129 No. 1 January 1999, pp. 207-213.
http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/129/1/207

Hahn K et al. A placebo-controlled trial of gabapentin for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies. J Neurol. 2004 Oct;251(10):1260-6.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15503108

Hart AM et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS: 23 July 2004 – Volume 18 – Issue 11 – pp 1549-1560.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2004/07230/Acetyl_l_carnitine___a_pathogenesis_based.9.aspx

Keswani SC et al. HIV-associated sensory neuropathies. AIDS: 8 November 2002 – Volume 16 – Issue 16 – pp 2105-2117 Editorial Review.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2002&issue=11080&article=00002&type=fulltext

Mason L et al. Systematic review of topical capsaicin for the treatment of chronic pain. BMJ 2004; 328: 991 doi: 10.1136/bmj.38042.506748.EE (Published 19 March 2004).
http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7446/991.full

Moyle G et al. Efficacy of NGX-4010 (Qutenza), an 8% capsaicin patch, in patients with HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy: results of integrated analyses. 17th International AIDS Conference, 18–23 July 2010, Vienna. Poster abstract WEPE0070.
http://pag.aids2010.org/Abstracts.aspx?AID=7121

Phillips TJC et al. Pharmacological treatment of painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PLoS One (28 December 2010). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014433
http://clinicaltrials.ploshubs.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0014433

Semitala FC et al. Does toxicity to fixed dose stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine regimen affect virologic suppression among HIV infected adults at the Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University? JAIDS: June 2009 – Volume 51 – Supplement 2, 11th Anniversary Annual International Meeting of the Institute of Human Virology. Abstract 257. doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000351212.54681.a4.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2009/06012/257_Does_toxicity_to_fixed_dose_stavudine,.162.aspx

Shlay JC et al. Acupuncture and amitriptyline for pain due to HIV-related peripheral neuropathy, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998;280:1590-1595.
http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/280/18/1590

Simpson DM et al. Controlled trial of high-concentration capsaicin patch for treatment of painful HIV neuropathy. Neurology 2008;70:2305-2313.
http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/70/24/2305

Youle M et al. A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre study of acetyl l-carnitine in the symptomatic treatment of antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in patients with HIV-1 infection. HIV Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 4, pages 241–250, May 2007.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2007.00467.x/full

Weintraub MI et al. Static magnetic field therapy for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 84, May 2003.
http://prdupl02.ynet.co.il/ForumFiles_2/25923990.pdf

Winemiller MH et al. Effect of magnetic vs sham-magnetic insoles on plantar heel pain, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;290:1474-1478.
http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/290/11/1474

Liver toxicity, rash and nevirapine

Huntington S et al. Does pregnancy increase the risk of ART-induced hepatotoxicity among HIV-positive women? HIV Drug Therapy Glasgow Congress, 2-6 November 2014. Oral abstract O133. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2014, 17(Suppl 3):19486
http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/19486

Kovari H et al. Antiretroviral drug-related liver mortality among HIV-positive persons in the absence of HBV or HCV co-infection. The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study. Clin Infect Dis (22 October 2012 Advance access)
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/10/22/cid.cis919.abstract

“Rash associated with liver toxicity is likely to be immune mediated hypersensitivty reaction with a genetic HLA associated, rash without liver toxicty is a different mechanism unlinked to CD4 count”

Martínez E et al. Hepatotoxicity in HIV-1-infected patients receiving nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy. AIDS: 6 July 2001 – Volume 15 – Issue 10 – pp 1261-1268.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2001/07060/Hepatotoxicity_in_HIV_1_infected_patients.7.aspx

Stern JO et al. A comprehensive hepatic safety analysis of nevirapine in different populations of HIV infected patients. JAIDS: 2003;34(suppl 1):S21-33.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2003&issue=09011&article=00005&type=fulltext

Baylor MS et al. Hepatotoxicity Associated With Nevirapine Use. JAIDS: 15 April 2004 – Volume 35 – Issue 5 – pp 538-539. Letters to the Editor.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2004/04150/Hepatotoxicity_Associated_With_Nevirapine_Use.14.aspx

Martin AM et al. Predisposition to nevirapine hypersensitivity associated with HLA-DRB1*0101 and abrogated by low CD4 T-cell counts. AIDS: 3 January 2005 – Volume 19 – Issue 1 – p 97-99. Research Letter.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2005/01030/Predisposition_to_nevirapine_hypersensitivity.14.aspx

Lactic acidosis

Arenas-Pinto A et al. Lactic acidosis in HIV infected patients: a systematic review of published cases. Sex Transm Infect 2003;79:340-343 doi:10.1136/sti.79.4.340.
http://sti.bmj.com/content/79/4/340.abstract

Moyle G et al. Hyperlactataemia and lactic acidosis during antiretroviral therapy: relevance, reproducibility and possible risk factors. AIDS, 5 July 2002 – Volume 16 – Issue 10 – pp 1341-1349.http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2002/07050/Hyperlactataemia_and_lactic_acidosis_during.5.aspx

Geddes R et al. A high incidence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-induced lactic acidosis in HIV-infected patients in a South African context. Southern African Medical Journal. August 2006, Vol. 96, No. 8.
http://www2.samj.org.za/index.php/samj/article/view/1205/640

Butt AA. Fatal lactic acidosis and pancreatitis associated with ribavirin and didanosine therapy, AIDS Read. 2003;13(7).
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/459373_1

Mandelbrot TL et al. Case report: nucleoside analogue-induced lactic acidosis in the third trimester of pregnancy. AIDS, 24 January 2003 – Volume 17 – Issue 2 – pp 272-273.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2003/01240/Case_report___nucleoside_analogue_induced_lactic.23.aspx

Murphy MD et al. Fatal lactic acidosis and acute renal failure after addition of tenofovir to an antiretroviral regimen containing didanosine. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1082-1085.
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/368313

Osler M et al. Risk factors for and clinical characteristics of severe hyperlactataemia in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy: a case–control study. HIV Medicine, Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 121–129, February 2010.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00754.x/abstract

Wester CW et al. Higher-than-expected rates of lactic acidosis among HAART-treated women in Botswana: preliminary results from a large randomized clinical trial. JAIDS: 1 November 2007 – Volume 46 – Issue 3 – pp 318-322, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181568e3f.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2007/11010/Higher_Than_Expected_Rates_of_Lactic_Acidosis.10.aspx

Hepatic steatosis and pancreatitis

Rate in HIV and d4T/ddI/hydroxyurea

Reisler RB et al. Incidence of Pancreatitis in HIV-1–Infected Individuals Enrolled in 20 Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group Studies. JAIDS: 2005 June 1; 39(2): 159–166.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1373674/

Low rates with cumulative expose to RTIs

Smith CJ et al. The role of antiretroviral therapy in the incidence of pancreatitis in HIV-positive individuals in the EuroSIDA study. AIDS: 2 January 2008 – Volume 22 – Issue 1 – p 47-56, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f03094.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/01020/The_role_of_antiretroviral_therapy_in_the.6.aspx

No increased risk from HCV coinfection, perhaps because low BMI?

Monto A et al. Hepatic steatosis in HIV/hepatitis C coinfection: prevalence and significance compared with hepatitis C monoinfection. Hepatology, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2005.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.20805/pdf

No increased risk from statins

Thisted H et al. Statins and the risk of acute pancreatitis: a population-based case-control study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jan 1;23(1):185-90. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16393296

Singh S, Loke YK. Statins and pancreatitis: a systematic review of observational studies and spontaneous case reports. Drug Saf. 2006;29(12):1123-32.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17147459

Obesity

Pancreatology. 2004;4(1):42-8. Epub 2004 Feb 24., Is obesity a risk factor in acute pancreatitis? A meta-analysis., Martínez J
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14988657

Alcohol induced in SA

Anderson F et al. Acute pancreatitis: demographics, aetiological factors and outcomes in a regional hospital in South Africa. S Afr J Surg. 2008 Aug;46(3):83-6.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18807304

HIV and fatty liver disease

British Liver Trust. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
https://www.britishlivertrust.org.uk/liver-information/liver-conditions/non-alcohol-related-fatty-liver-disease

Crum-Cianflone M et al. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) among HIV-Infected Persons. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15; 50(5): 464–473. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a88a.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782375

Garvey L et al. NAFLD (Non alcohol fatty acid liver disease): an emerging problem. 22nd Annual BHIVA Conference, 19-22 April 2016, Manchester. Plenary lecture.
http://www.bhiva.org/documents/Conferences/2016Manchester/Presentations/160421/LucyGarvey.pdf (PDF slides)

http://www.bhiva.org/160421LucyGarvey.aspx (webcast)

Guaraldi G et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV-infected patients referred to a metabolic clinic: prevalence, characteristics, and predictors. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:250-257.
https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/47/2/250/358207

Harrison SA et al. Orlistat for overweight subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: A randomized, prospective trial. Hepatology 2009;49:80-86,
https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hep.22575

Johnson SA et al. Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss.. Hepatology 2009;50:1105-1112.
https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hep.23129

Lake J et al. Hepatic steatosis is common in both younger and older adults living with HIV and associated with divergent immuno-metabolic profiles. 9th International Workshop on HIV and Aging, September 13-14, 2018, New York. Abstract 7.  Reported in HTB October 2018.
http://i-base.info/htb/35104

Mathurin P et al. Prospective study of the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on liver injury in patients without advanced disease.Gastroenterology 2009;137:532-40.
https://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(09)00701-X/fulltext?

Maurice JB et al. Prevalence and risk factors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV-monoinfection. AIDS 31: 1621-32, 2017.
https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2017/07170/Prevalence_and_risk_factors_of_nonalcoholic_fatty.14.aspx

Morse CG. Fatty liver disease in HIV: common, underappreciated, and understudied. AIDS 31: 1633-35, 2017.
https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2017/07170/Fatty_liver_disease_in_HIV___common,.15.aspx

Neuschwander-Tetri BA et al. Farnesoid X nuclear receptor ligand obeticholic acid for non-cirrhotic, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (FLINT): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2015. 385 (9972): 956-965.

NHS. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease

Promrat K et al. Randomized controlled trial testing the effects of weight loss on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology 2010;51:121-129.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2799538

Safadi R et al. The fatty acid-bile acid conjugate Aramchol reduces liver fat content in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Dec;12(12):2085-91.
https://www.cghjournal.org/article/S1542-3565(14)00673-9/fulltext

Shojaee-Moradie F et al. Exercise training reduces fatty acid availability and improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism. Diabetologica 2007;50:404-413.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00125-006-0498-7

Vodkin I et al. Clinical, biochemical and histological differences between HIV-associated NAFLD and primary NAFLD: a case – control study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015;41:368–78.
http://www.natap.org/2017/HIV/apt13052.pdf (PDF)

Abacavir hypersensitivity

Abacavir product information. ViiV/GSK.
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/000252/human_med_001179.jsp&murl=menus/medicines/medicines.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d124&jsenabled=true

Mallal S et al. HLA-B*5701 Screening for Hypersensitivity to Abacavir, NEJM Volume 358:568-579 February 7, 2008 Number 6.
http://www.contentnejmorg.zuom.info/cgi/content/abstract/358/6/568

Young B et al. First large, multicenter, open-label study utilizing HLA-B*5701 screening for abacavir hypersensitivity in North America. AIDS:, 20 August 2008 – Volume 22 – Issue 13 – p 1673-1675, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830719aa.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2008/08200/First_large,_multicenter,_open_label_study.19.aspx

Mallal S et al. Association between presence of HLA-B*5701, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DQ3 and hypersensitivity to HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitor abacavir. The Lancet, Volume 359, Issue 9308, Pages 727-732.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2802%2907873-X/fulltext

Tenofovir HSR

Lockhart SM et al. Cutaneous reactions with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a report of nine cases. AIDS. 2007 21(10):1370-1373, (June 2007).
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/06190/Cutaneous_reactions_with_tenofovir_disoproxil.21.aspx

de Perio MA et al. A Truvada hypersensitivity reaction simulating abacavir hypersensitivity. AIDS: October 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 16 – p 2252-2253 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f08b84.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/10180/A_truvada_hypersensitivity_reaction_simulating.20.aspx

Kidney side effects, kidney stones, gall stones

Yombi JC et al. Monitoring of kidney function in HIV-positive patients. HIV Medicine Sept 2015 16(8) 457-477. DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12249
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/hiv.12249/abstract

Poinsignon Y et al. Complicated atazanavir-associated cholelithiasis: a report of eight documented cases among 11 cases. 19th International AIDS Conference. 22-27 July 2012, Washington. Poster abstract MOPE099.
http://pag.aids2012.org/Abstracts.aspx?AID=6375

Rakotondravelo S et al. Complicated atazanavir-associated cholelithiasis: a report of 14 cases. Clin Infect Dis. (2012) 55 (9): 1270-1272. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis620. First published online: 19 July 2012.
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/9/1270

Hamada Y et a. High incidence of renal stones among HIV-infected patients on ritonavir-boosted atazanavir than in those receiving other protease inhibitor–containing antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. (2012) 55 (9): 1270-1272. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis621. First published online: 19 July 2012.
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/9/1262.abstract 

Mocroft A et al. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive patients, AIDS:, 17 July 2010 – Volume 24 – Issue 11 – p 1667–1678, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328339fe53,
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2010&issue=07170&article=00007&type=abstract

Gupta SK et al. Guidelines for the management of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients: recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America., Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 40(11):1559-85.
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/430257

Izzedine H et al. The nephrologist in the HAART era, AIDS:, 19 February 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 4 – p 409-421, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328011ec40,
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/02190/The_nephrologist_in_the_HAART_era.3.aspx

Kidney safety associated with tenofovir

Nishijima T et al. Long-term exposure to tenofovir continuously decreases renal function in HIV-1-infected patients with low body weight: results from 10 years of follow-up. AIDS. 2014; 28: 1903-1910.
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Tenofovir Product Information. Summary of Product Characteristics and Patient Information Leaflet. Gilead.
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Joel E. Gallant et al. Tenofovir DF, Emtricitabine, and Efavirenz vs. Zidovudine, Lamivudine, and Efavirenz for HIV. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:251-260 January 19, 2006.
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa051871

Nelson MR et al. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the treatment of HIV infection in adults: the first 4 years. AIDS: June 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 10 – p 1273-1281 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280b07b33.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/06190/The_safety_of_tenofovir_disoproxil_fumarate_for.6.aspx

Karras A, Lafaurie M, Furco A, et al. Tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: three cases of renal failure, Fanconi syndrome, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:1070-1073
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/368314

Wever K et al. Incomplete Reversibility of Tenofovir-Related Renal Toxicity in HIV-Infected Men. JAIDS: 1 September 2010 – Volume 55 – Issue 1 – pp 78-81, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181d05579.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2010/09010/Incomplete_Reversibility_of_Tenofovir_Related.10.aspx

Leport C et al. Long‐term evolution and determinants of renal function in HIV‐infected patients who began receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in 1997–1999, ANRS CO8 APROCO‐COPILOTE. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Dec 15;49(12):1950-4. DOI: 10.1086/648445.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19911986

Fux CA et al. Tenofovir use is associated with a reduction in calculated glomerular filtration rates in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Antivir Ther 2007; 12:1165–73.
http://www.infekt.ch/updown/documents/publ/2007/Fux_2007_Tenofovir_use_is_associated.pdf

Choi A et al. HIV-infected persons continue to lose kidney function despite successful antiretroviral therapy, AIDS. 23(16):2143-2149, October 23, 2009. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283313c91.
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Bansi L et al on behalf of the UK CHIC/ESRF study group. Clinical epidemiology of HIV-associated end-stage renal failure in the UK AIDS. 23(18):2517-2521, 27 November 2009. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283320e12.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2009/11270/Clinical_epidemiology_of_HIV_associated_end_stage.17.aspx

Peyrière H et al. Renal Tubular Dysfunction Associated With Tenofovir Therapy: Report of 7 Cases, JAIDS: 1 March 2004 – Volume 35 – Issue 3 – pp 269-273.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2004/03010/Renal_Tubular_Dysfunction_Associated_With.7.aspx

Crixivan (indinavir sulfate). Summary of product characteristics. Merck Sharpe & Dohme; 1996.
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Koop JB et al. Crystalluria and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Associated with Indinavir, Ann Int Med. July 15, 1997 vol. 127 no. 2 119-125.
http://www.annals.org/content/127/2/119.full

Chan-Tack KM et al. Atazanavir-associated nephrolithiasis: cases from the US Food and Drug Administration’s adverse event reporting system. AIDS: Volume 21(9)31 May 2007p 1215-1218.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/05310/Atazanavir_associated_nephrolithiasis__cases_from.19.aspx

Izzedine H et al. Efavirenz urolithiasis. AIDS: September 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 14 – p 1992, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282ef792f. Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/09120/Efavirenz_urolithiasis.29.aspx

Post F et al. Randomized comparison of renal effects, efficacy, and safety with once-daily abacavir/lamivudine versus tenofovir/emtricitabine, administered with efavirenz, in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected adults: 48-week results from the ASSERT study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Sep 1;55(1):49-57.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2010/09010/Randomized_Comparison_of_Renal_Effects,_Efficacy,.6.aspx

Hug et al. Treatment for human immunodeficiency virus with indinavir may cause relevant urological side-effects, effectively treatable by rehydration. BJU International. Volume 84, Issue 6, pages 610–614, October 1999.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.00263.x/abstract

Increased bilirubin, jaundice (yellow skin or eyes)

Atazanavir product information, Bristol-Myers Squibb
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/000494/human_med_001035.jsp&murl=menus/medicines/medicines.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d124&jsenabled=true

Atazanavir Plasma Levels Associated with Efficacy and Safety in Protease Inhibitor-experienced HIV-infected Patients. Program Abstr Conf Retrovir Oppor Infect 11th 2004 San Franc Calif. 2004 Feb 8-11; 11: abstract no. 606.
http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102271568.html

Rodríguez-Nóvoa S et al. Genetic factors influencing atazanavir plasma concentrations and the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. AIDS:, 2 January 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 1 – p 41-46, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328011d7c1,
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2007/01020/Genetic_factors_influencing_atazanavir_plasma.5.aspx

T-20 side effects

T-20 product information. Roche Laboratories.
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/000514/human_med_000802.jsp&murl=menus/medicines/medicines.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d124&jsenabled=true

Clotet B et al. Clinical management of treatment-experienced, HIV-infected patients with the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide: consensus recommendations. AIDS: 21 May 2004 – Volume 18 – Issue 8 – pp 1137-1146.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2004/05210/Clinical_management_of_treatment_experienced,.7.aspx

Lipodystophy and metabolic changes

Kotler D, Tebas P, Wohl D et al. HIV and Cardiometabolic Abnormalities: New Perspectives and Treatment Update. JAIDS September 1, 2008 – Volume 49 – Supplement 2.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/toc/2008/09012

Tien PC, Cole SR, Williams CM, et al. Incidence of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in the women’s interagency HIV study. JAIDS: 2003;34:461-466.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2003/12150/Incidence_of_Lipoatrophy_and_Lipohypertrophy_in.3.aspx

Brown T et al. Longitudinal anthropometric changes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men. JAIDS: 1 November 2006 – Volume 43 – Issue 3 – pp 356-362, doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000243052.73321.8e.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2006/11010/Longitudinal_Anthropometric_Changes_in.15.aspx

Aldrovandi GM et al. Morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in vertically HIV-infected children and youth. AIDS: 27 March 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 6 – p 661-672. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283269dfb.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2009/03270/Morphologic_and_metabolic_abnormalities_in.3.aspx

Lipoatrophy is predominant feature of HIV-related lipodystrophy

Bacchetti P et al. Fat distribution in men with HIV infection. Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). JAIDS: 2005 Oct 1;40(2):121-31.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2005/10010/Fat_Distribution_in_Men_With_HIV_Infection.2.aspx

Lichtenstein K et al. HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS): definition, epidemiology and clinical impact. AIDS Research and Therapy 2007;4:16. doi:10.1186/1742-6405-4-16.
http://www.aidsrestherapy.com/content/4/1/16

Impact of HIV and viraemia

Kotler DP et al. Studies of Body Composition and Fat Distribution in HIV-Infected and Control Subjects. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes & Human Retrovirology: 1 March 1999 – Volume 20 – Issue 3 – pp 228-237.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=1999&issue=03010&article=00003&type=fulltext

Role of NRTS in lipoatrophy – skin biopsy

Nolan D et al. Mitochondrial DNA depletion and morphologic changes in adipocytes associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. AIDS:, 13 June 2003 – Volume 17 – Issue 9 – pp 1329-1338.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2003&issue=06130&article=00007&type=fulltext

Nolan D. Differential effects of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) regimens on adipocyte mitochondrial DNA depletion in HIV-infected patients. 6th Lipodystrophy Workshop, Washington, 2004.
http://www.aegis.org/conferences/lipo/2004/16.html

Mallal SA et al. Contribution of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors to subcutaneous fat wasting in patients with HIV infection. AIDS. 2000 Jul 7;14(10):1309-16.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10930144

van der Valk M et al. Increased risk of lipodystrophy when nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors are included with protease inhibitors in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2001 May 4;15(7):847-55.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11399957

Higher lipoatrophy with efavirenz vs lopinavir/r

Haubrich R et al.Metabolic outcomes in a randomized trial of nucleoside, nonnucleoside and protease inhibitor-sparing regimens for initial HIV treatment (ACTG 5142). AIDS: 1 June 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 9 – p 1109-1118, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b4377.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2009&issue=06010&article=00008&type=fulltext

NOTE – EFV+AZT+3TC vs LPV/r mono – ie could be AZT effect

Cameron DW et al. Significant Sparing of Peripheral Lipoatrophy by HIV Treatment with LPV/r + ZDV/3TC Induction followed by LPV/r Monotherapy Compared with EFV + ZDV/3TC. CROI 2007. Oral abstract 44.
http://www.retroconference.org/2007/Abstracts/30523.htm

EFV and gynaecomastia

Njuguna C et al. A case series of ART-associated gynaecomastia reported to the national HIV and TB healthcare workers (HCW) hotline. 2014 Southern African Clinicians Society Conference, 24-27 September 2014, Cape Town, South Africa.
http://sahivsoc2014.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Thurs_Christine_Njuguna-obwolo%20A%20case%20series%20of%20antiretroviral%20therapy.pdf (PDF)

Sikora MJ et al Efavirenz directly modulates the oestrogen receptor and induces breast cancer cell growth. HIV Medicine October 2010, Volume 11, Issue 9 Pages 545–609.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00831.x/abstract

Fat loss drives HIV-related lipodystrophy (both limb and trunk)

Tien PC, Grunfeld C. What is HIV-associated lipodystrophy? Defining fat distribution changes in HIV infection. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: February 2004 – Volume 17 – Issue 1 – pp 27-32.
http://journals.lww.com/co-infectiousdiseases/Abstract/2004/02000/What_is_HIV_associated_lipodystrophy__Defining_fat.5.aspx

Arpadi S et al. Longitudinal changes in regional fat content in HIV-infected children and adolescents. AIDS: 31 July 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 12 – p 1501-1509, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b7e69.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2009/07310/Longitudinal_changes_in_regional_fat_content_in.8.aspx

Blanes M et al. Angiolipomas, a rare manifestation of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. AIDS. 22(4):552-554, February 19, 2008. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f56b7a
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/02190/Angiolipomas,%20_a_rare_manifestation_of.24.aspx

Lipoatrophy management and treatment

Capeau J et al. A six month interruption in HIV-infected patients improves adipose tissue morphology and gene expression (ANRS EP29 Lipostop). 8th IWADRLH, September 2006, San Francisco. Abstract 5. Report in HTB:
http://i-base.info/htb/2996

Moyle GJ et al. A randomized comparative trial of tenofovir DF or abacavir as replacement for a thymidine analogue in persons with lipoatrophy. AIDS 2006; 20:2043–2050.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2006&issue=10240&article=00006&type=fulltext

Fisher M et al. A randomized comparative trial of continued zidovudine/lamivudine or replacement with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in efavirenz-treated HIV-1-infected individuals. JAIDS: August 2009 – Volume 51 – Issue 5 – pp 562-568 doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181ae2eb9
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Abstract/2009/08150/A_Randomized_Comparative_Trial_of_Continued.8.aspx

Carr A et al. Abacavir substitution for nucleoside analogs in patients with HIV lipoatrophy: a randomized trial (MITOX). JAMA. 2002 Jul 10;288(2):207-15.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12095385

Martin A et al. Reversibility of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients 2 years after switching from a thymidine analogue to abacavir: the MITOX Extension Study. AIDS:, 30 April 2004 – Volume 18 – Issue 7 – pp 1029-1036.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2004&issue=04300&article=00011&type=fulltext

Rosen S et al. Cost and cost-effectiveness of switching from stavudine to tenofovir in first-line antiretroviral regimens in South Africa. JAIDS: 1 July 2008 – Volume 48 – Issue 3 – pp 334-344, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31817ae5ef.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2008/07010/Cost_and_Cost_Effectiveness_of_Switching_From.14.aspx

Valantin M-A et al. Polylactic acid implants (New-Fill)(R) to correct facial lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients: results of the open-label study VEGA. AIDS. 17(17):2471-2477, November 21, 2003.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2003/11210/Polylactic_acid_implants__New_Fill__R__to_correct.9.aspx

Moyle G et al. A randomized open-label study of immediate versus, delayed polylactic acid injections for the cosmetic, management of facial lipoatrophy in persons with HIV infection. HIV Medicine (March 2004);5; 82–87.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2004.00190.x/full

Levy RM, Redbord KP, Hanke CW. Treatment of HIV lipoatrophy and lipoatrophy of aging with poly-L-lactic acid: a prospective 3-year follow-up study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008; 59: 923–933.
http://www.eblue.org/article/S0190-9622%2808%2900929-8/abstract

Poly-L-lactic acid (New-Fill, Sculptra): FDA approval and efficacy

http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/DeviceApprovalsandClearances/Recently-ApprovedDevices/ucm080931.htm
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cftopic/pma/pma.cfm?num=p030050

Silvers SL et al. Prospective, open-label, 18-month trial of calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse) for facial soft-tissue augmentation in patients with HIV-associated lipoatrophy: one-year durability. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: 1 September 2006 – Volume 118 – Issue 3S – pp 34S-45S, doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000234847.36020.52.
http://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/Abstract/2006/09011/Prospective,_Open_Label,_18_Month_Trial_of_Calcium.8.aspx

Radiesse: FDA approval and efficacy

http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/DeviceApprovalsandClearances/Recently-ApprovedDevices/ucm077270.htm

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cftopic/pma/pma.cfm?num=p050037

Carruthers A et al. Radiographic and computed tomographic studies of calcium hydroxylapatite for treatment of HIV–associated facial lipoatrophy and correction of nasolabial folds. Dermatologic Surgery, Volume 34, pages S78–S84, June 2008.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2008.34247.x/abstract

Skeie L et al. Large particle hyaluronic acid for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy in HIV-positive patients: 3-year follow-up study (Restylane SubQ). HIV Medicine 2010;11(3):170-177.
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/718536

Loutfy MR et al. Immediate versus delayed polyalkylimide gel injections to correct facial lipoatrophy in HIV-positive patients. AIDS: 31 May 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 9 – p 1147-1155, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3281c6148d.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2007/05310/Immediate_versus_delayed_polyalkylimide_gel.8.aspx

Ross AH et al. Long-term orbito-facial complications of polyalkylimide 4% (Bio-Alcamid). Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: September/October 2009 – Volume 25 – Issue 5 – pp 394-397, doi: 10.1097/IOP.0b013e3181b3ac71.
http://journals.lww.com/op-rs/Abstract/2009/09000/Long_Term_Orbitofacial_Complications_of.14.aspx

Karim RB et al. Complications of polyalkylimide 4% injections (Bio-Alcamid): a report of 18 cases. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59(12):1409-14. Epub 2006 Jul 7.
http://www.jprasurg.com/article/S1748-6815%2806%2900355-X/abstract

Fontdevila J et al. Co(mplications with Bioalcamid in the aesthetic treatment of lipoatrophy. Abstract 100. Antiviral Therapy. 2006; 11: L60.
http://www.aegis.org/conferences/lipo/2006/100.html

Goldan O et al. Early and late complications after a nonabsorbable hydrogel polymer injection: a series of 14 patients and novel management. Dermatologic Surgery, Volume 33, pages S199–S206, December 2007.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2007.33361.x/abstract

Alijotas-Reig J et al. Delayed immune-mediated adverse effects of polyalkylimide dermal fillers, clinical findings and long-term follow-up. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144(5):637-642.
http://archderm.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/144/5/637

Nadarajah J et al. Infectious complications of Bio-Alcamid soft tissue endoprosthesis treatment of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy. 12th International Workshop on Adverse Drug Reactions and Co-morbidities in HIV. Oral abstract O28. Antiviral Therapy 2010; 15 Suppl 4:A22.
http://www.intmedpress.com/lipodystrophy

Pravastatin increases limb fat in people with elevated cholesterol

Mallon PWG et al. Effect of pravastatin on body composition and markers of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected men-a randomized, placebo-controlled study. AIDS:, 24 April 2006 – Volume 20 – Issue 7 – p 1003-1010, doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000222072.37749.5a
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2006/04240/Effect_of_pravastatin_on_body_composition_and.7.aspx

Tungsiripat M et al. Rosiglitazone improves lipoatrophy in patients receiving thymidine-sparing regimens. AIDS: 1 June 2010 – Volume 24 – Issue 9 – p 1291–1298, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328339e274.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2010/06010/Rosiglitazone_improves_lipoatrophy_in_patients.8.aspx

Rosiglitazone (lipoatrophy treatment)

Mafong DD et al. Development of multiple lipomas during treatment with rosiglitazone in a patient with HIV-associated lipoatrophy. AIDS: 20 August 2004 – Volume 18 – Issue 12 – pp 1742-1744.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2004/08200/Development_of_multiple_lipomas_during_treatment.21.aspx

Jones DH et al. Highly purified 1000-cSt silicone oil for treatment of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy: an open pilot trial. Dermatologic Surgery, Volume 30, Issue 10, pages 1279–1286, October 2004.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2004.30406.x/abstract

Guaraldi g et al. Facial fat hypertrophy in patients who receive autologous fat tissue transfer. Autologous Fat Transfer 2010, Part 6, 427-431, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-00473-5_55.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/v73510527087u1p1/

Levan P et al. Correction of facial lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy by injection of autologous fatty tissue. AIDS: 27 September 2002 – Volume 16 – Issue 14 – pp 1985-1987. Correspondence.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2002/09270/Correction_of_facial_lipoatrophy_in_HIV_infected.26.aspx

Lipohypertrophy

Diet and exercise

Jones SP. Short-term exercise training improves body composition and hyperlipidaemia in HIV-positive individuals with lipodystrophy. AIDS: 19 October 2001 – Volume 15 – Issue 15 – pp 2049-2051. Research Letter.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2001/10190/Short_term_eercise_training_improves_body.21.aspx

Driscoll SD. Effects of exercise training and metformin on body composition and cardiovascular indices in HIV-infected patients. AIDS: 20 February 2004 – Volume 18 – Issue 3 – pp 465-473.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2004/02200/Effects_of_exercise_training_and_metformin_on_body.13.aspx

Agin D et al. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body cell mass, muscle strength, and quality of life in women with HIV. AIDS: 7 December 2001 – Volume 15 – Issue 18 – pp 2431-2440.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2001/12070/Effects_of_whey_protein_and_resistance_exercise_on.11.aspx

McCarty MF/ Iatrogenic lipodystrophy in HIV patients – the need for very-low-fat diets. Medical Hypotheses 61(5–6); 561-566. (November–December 2003)
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00230-5

Roubenoff R et al. A pilot study of exercise training to reduce trunk fat in adults with HIV-associated fat redistribution. AIDS: 30 July 1999 – Volume 13 – Issue 11 – pp 1373-1375. Concise Communication.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/1999/07300/A_pilot_study_of_exercise_training_to_reduce_trunk.15.aspx

Fitch KV et al. Effects of a lifestyle modification program in HIV-infected patients with the metabolic syndrome. AIDS: 11 September 2006 – Volume 20 – Issue 14 – p 1843-1850. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000244203.95758.db.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2006/09110/Effects_of_a_lifestyle_modification_program_in.7.aspx

Joy et al. Dietary fat intake and relationship to serum lipid levels in HIV-infected patients with metabolic abnormalities in the HAART era. AIDS: 31 July 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 12 – p 1591-1600 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32823644ff.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2007/07310/Dietary_fat_intake_and_relationship_to_serum_lipid.12.aspx

Treatment interventions

Mulligan K et al. The effects of recombinant human leptin on visceral fat, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in patients with HIV-associated lipoatrophy and hypoleptinemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , doi:10.1210/jc.2008-1588.
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jc.2008-1588v1

Testosterone

Pasquet A, Lachatre M, Soudan B, et al. Preliminary results of the study hypogonadism and persons living with HIV. ICAAC 2015, September 17-21, 2015, San Diego. Abstract H-1207.

Bhasin S et al. Effects of testosterone supplementation on whole body and regional fat mass and distribution in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92: 1049 –1057, 2007)
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/92/3/1049.pdf

Dolan Looby SE at al. Effects of long-term testosterone administration in HIV-infected women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. AIDS: 15 May 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 8 – p 951-959. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283299145.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2009/05150/Effects_of_long_term_testosterone_administration.10.aspx

Wanke C et al. Recombinant human growth hormone improves the fat redistribution syndrome (lipodystrophy) in patients with HIV. AIDS: 22 October 1999 – Volume 13 – Issue 15 – pp 2099-2103.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/1999/10220/Recombinant_human_growth_hormone_improves_the_fat.13.aspx

Lo JC et al. The effects of recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 86, No. 8 3480-3487.
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jcem;86/8/3480

Falutz J et al. Metabolic effects of a Growth Hormone–Releasing Factor in patients with HIV. NEJM Volume 357:2359-2370. December 6, 2007. Number 23.
http://www.contentnejmorg.zuom.info/cgi/content/full/357/23/2359

Falutz J et al. Long-term safety and effects of tesamorelin, a growth hormone-releasing factor analogue, in HIV patients with abdominal fat accumulation. AIDS: 12 September 2008 – Volume 22 – Issue 14 – p 1719-1728, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830a5058.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/09120/Long_term_safety_and_effects_of_tesamorelin,_a.6.aspx

Theratechnologie Press Release. Theratechnologies Provides Regulatory Update on Tesamorelin. (22 June 2012).
http://www.theratech.com/sites/default/files/news_release_en/th-06222012-en.pdf (PDF)

Gervasoni C et al. Long-term efficacy of the surgical treatment of buffalo hump in patients continuing antiretroviral therapy. Research letter. AIDS: 20 February 2004 – Volume 18 – Issue 3 – pp 574-576.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2004/02200/Long_term_efficacy_of_the_surgical_treatment_of.30.aspx

Grunfeld C et al. Recombinant human growth hormone to treat HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome: 12-week induction and 24-week maintenance therapy. JAIDS: 1 July 2007 – Volume 45 – Issue 3 – pp 286-297, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31804a7f68.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2007/07010/Recombinant_Human_Growth_Hormone_to_Treat.6.aspx

Kotler D et al. Effects of growth hormone on abnormal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. JAIDS: 1 March 2004 – Volume 35 – Issue 3 – pp 239-252.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2004/03010/Effects_of_Growth_Hormone_on_Abnormal_Visceral.4.aspx

Koutkia P et al. Growth Hormone–Releasing Hormone in HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:210-218.
http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/292/2/210

Reilly MJ et al. Wound infection rates in elective plastic surgery for HIV-positive patients. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: January 2009 – Volume 123 – Issue 1 – pp 106-111, doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181904dd9.
http://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/Abstract/2009/01000/Wound_Infection_Rates_in_Elective_Plastic_Surgery.15.aspx

Metformin caution

Kohli R et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of metformin for the treatment of HIV lipodystrophy. HIV Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 7, pages 420–426, October 2007.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2007.00488.x/full

Lipids – cholesterol and triglycerides

Armatige J. The safety of statins in clinical practice. Lancet 2007; 370: 1781–90. DOI:10.1016/S01406736(07)60716-8.
http://www.cimed.ucr.ac.cr/archivos/Articulos Interes/2009/Enero 2009/Seguridad de las Estatinas en la practica Clinica Diaria Lancet 2007.pdf

Calza L et al. Statins and fibrates for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. AIDS: 11 April 2003 – Volume 17 – Issue 6 – pp 851-859.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2003/04110/Statins_and_fibrates_for_the_treatment_of.10.aspx

Chou D et al. Short-term ezetimibe is well tolerated and effective in combination with statin therapy to treat elevated LDL cholesterol in HIV-infected patients. AIDS: 23 October 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 16 – p 2133-2141 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833068e3.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2009/10230/Short_term_ezetimibe_is_well_tolerated_and.8.aspx

De Truchis P et al. Reduction in triglyceride level with N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in HIV-infected patients taking potent antiretroviral therapy: a randomized prospective study. JAIDS: 1 March 2007 – Volume 44 – Issue 3 – pp 278-285, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31802c2f3d.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2007/03010/Reduction_in_Triglyceride_Level_With_N_3.5.aspx

Dubé MP et al, Safety and efficacy of extended-release niacin for the treatment of dyslipidaemia in patients with HIV infection: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5148. Antiviral Therapy11:1081–1089.
http://www.intmedpress.com/serveFile.cfm?sUID=61ed835f-200b-4a2b-9ad4-da32ea8ac7c2

ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. European Heart Journal (June 2011) doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr158
http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/06/27/eurheartj.ehr158.full

Gerber JG et al. Fish oil and fenofibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy, results of ACTG A5186. JAIDS: 2008, April 1; 47(4): 459–466. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815bace2.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2008/04010/Reduction_in_Triglyceride_Level_With_N_3.7.aspx

Kotler D. Lipid abnormalities and associated cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. JAIDS: 1 September 2008 – Volume 49 – Issue – pp S79-S85, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318186519c.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2008/09012/HIV_and_Antiretroviral_Therapy__Lipid.3.aspx

Law M et al. Statin safety: a systematic review. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Apr 17;97(8A):52C-60C. Epub 2006 Feb 3.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16581329

Boffito M et al. Plasma exposure of 100 mg once and twice daily decreases HDL and CD36 expression but only twice-daily dosing increases triglycerides: potential effect of ritonavir on cardiovascular disease. 15th CROI, 3–6 February 2008, Boston. Poster abstract 930.
http://www.retroconference.org/2008/Abstracts/31793.htm

McGoldrick C et al. The management of dyslipidaemias in antiretroviral-treated HIV infection: a systematic review. HIV Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 6, pages 325–334, September 2007.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2007.00480.x/full

Moyle GJ et al. Dietary advice with or without pravastatin for the management of hypercholesterolaemia associated with protease inhibitor therapy. AIDS 2001;15:1503–1508.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2001/08170/Dietary_advice_with_or_without_pravastatin_for_the.7.aspx

Negredo E et al. Ezetimibe, a promising lipid-lowering agent for the treatment of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected patients with poor response to statins. AIDS:, 14 November 2006 – Volume 20 – Issue 17 – p 2159-2164, doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000247573.95880.db.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2006/11140/Ezetimibe,_a_promising_lipid_lowering_agent_for.4.aspx

Nordestgaard BG et al. Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and death in men and women. JAMA. 2007;298:299-308.
http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/298/3/299

PI switch to ATZ for lipids

Rubio R et al. Effect of simplification from protease inhibitors to boosted atazanavir-based regimens in real-life conditions. HIV Medicine, Volume 11, Issue 9, pages 545–553, October 2010.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00827.x/abstract

Scevola D et al. Effect of exercise and strength training on cardiovascular status in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2003 (April), 17 (suppl 1):S123 – S129.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2003/04001/Effect_of_exercise_and_strength_training_on.15.aspx

Worm S et al. Triglycerides and the risk of myocardial infarction in the D:A:D study. 17th CROI, 16–19 February 2010, San Francisco. Oral abstract 127.
http://www.retroconference.org/2010/Abstracts/37167.htm

Insulin resistance and diabetes

Achhra AC et al. Impact of short-term change in body mass index after antiretroviral therapy initiation on subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in HIV-positive individuals: the D:A:D study. 20th International AIDS Conference, 20-25 July 2014, Melbourne. Oral abstract WEAB0103.
http://pag.aids2014.org/Abstracts.aspx?SID=1141&AID=6485 (abstract)
http://pag.aids2014.org/flash.aspx?pid=1405 (webcast)

Blümer R et al. Zidovudine/lamivudine contributes to insulin resistance within 3 months of starting combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS: 11 January 2008 – Volume 22 – Issue 2 – p 227-236, doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f33557.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/01110/Zidovudine_lamivudine_contributes_to_insulin.8.aspx

Driscoll SD et al. Effects of exercise training and metformin on body composition and cardiovascular indices in HIV-infected patients. AIDS: 20 February 2004 – Volume 18 – Issue 3 – pp 465-473.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2004/02200/Effects_of_exercise_training_and_metformin_on_body.13.aspx

Ryan JG. Increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus with HIV-1 infection. Insulin Journal. Volume 5 Number 1.
http://www.insulinjournal.com/pdfs/v5_i1_37_ryan_010510_WEB.pdf

Samaras K et al. Prevalence and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in HIV-1 infection treated with combined antiretroviral therapy. JAIDS: April 2009 – Volume 50 – Issue 5 – pp 499-505, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31819c291b.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2009/04150/Prevalence_and_Pathogenesis_of_Diabetes_Mellitus.8.aspx

Tebas P. Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus associated with antiretroviral use in HIV-infected patients: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment options. JAIDS: 1 September 2008 – Volume 49 – Issue – pp S86-S92, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31818651e6.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2008/09012/Insulin_Resistance_and_Diabetes_Mellitus.4.aspx

HIV and ageing

Deeks SG, Phillips AN. HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, ageing, and non-AIDS related morbidity. BMJ 2009; 338:a3172 doi: 10.1136/bmj.a3172 (Published 26 January 2009).
http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.a3172.full

Murphy G and Youle M. Coming of Age: a guide to ageing well with HIV
http://www.hivtri.com

Heart disease

Collins S. Statin use in HIV positive people. HTB April 2013.
http://i-base.info/htb/21203

Sabin C et al. Is there continued evidence for an association between abacavir and myocardial infarction risk? 21st CROI, 3-6 March 2014, Boston. Poster abstract 747 LB.

British Cardiac Society/British Hypertension Society/Diabetes UK/Heart UK/Primary Care Cardiovascular Society (2005) JSB2: Joint British Societies’ guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. Heart 91: 1–52.
http://www.bcs.com/download/651/JBS2final.pdf

Crane HM et al. Lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy (belly fat not associated after BMI factored in) are independently associated with hypertension. HIV Medicine, Early View May 2009.
http://www.natap.org/2009/HIV/052709_06.htm

El-Sadr WM et al. CD4+ count-guided interruption of antiretroviral treatment. N Engl J Med2006;355:2283-96.
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa062360?ck=nck#t=abstract

Grinspoon S and Carr A. Cardiovascular risk and body-fat abnormalities in HIV-infected adults. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:48-62January 6, 2005.
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra041811

Grunfeld C et al. HIV infection Is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis similar in magnitude to traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. 16th CROI 2009. Oral abstract 146.
http://www.retroconference.org/2009/Abstracts/33991.htm

Hsue P et al. HIV infection is independently associated with detectable coronary artery calcium. 16th CROI 2009. Poster abstract 724.
http://www.retroconference.org/2009/Abstracts/33705.htm

Kloner RA. Cocaine and the Heart. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:487-488, February 6, 2003.
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp020174

Lundgren J et al. Risk of Myocardial infarction with exposure to specific ARV from the PI, NNRTI, and NRTI drug classes: the D:A:D study. 16th CROI, 8–11 February 2009, Montreal. Oral late breaker abstract 44LB.
http://www.retroconference.org/2009/Abstracts/36644.htm

Modrich L et al. Factors associated with mortality in the study of fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection. 16th CROI 2009. Poster abstract 706.
http://www.retroconference.org/2009/Abstracts/34462.htm

Petoumenos K et al. Rates of cardiovascular disease following smoking cessation in patients with HIV infection: results from the D:A:D study. 17th CROI, 16–19 February 2010, San Francisco. Oral abstract 124.
http://www.retroconference.org/2010/Abstracts/38289.htm

Reiss P. Abacavir and cardiovascular risk. 16th CROI. Oral abstract 152.
http://www.retroconference.org/2009/Abstracts/36788.htm

http://www.retroconference.org/2009/Abstracts/33705.htm

Ford ES et al. Traditional risk factors and D-dimer predict incident cardiovascular disease events in chronic HIV infection. AIDS: 19 June 2010 – Volume 24 – Issue 10 – p 1509-1517 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833ad914.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2010/06190/Traditional_risk_factors_and_D_dimer_predict.13.aspx

Bone health

National (US) Osteoporosis Foundation 2008 guidelines
http://www.nof.org

National Osteoporsis Society (UK)
http://www.nos.org.uk

Bone Research Society
http://www.brsoc.org.uk

Grant PM et al. Long-term Bone Mineral Density Changes in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-Infected Individuals. Brief report. JID (22 June 2016). DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiw204.
http://www.jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/06/20/infdis.jiw204.full

Hoy JF et al. Effects of immediate versus deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy on bone mineral density: a substudy of the INSIGHT strategic timing of antiretroviral therapy (START) study. 15th European AIDS Conference, October 21-24, 2015, Barcelona. Abstract ADRLH-62.

Hoy J et al. Changes in bone mineral density over 48 weeks among participants randomised to either lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + 2-3N(t)RTI or LPV/r + raltegravir as second-line therapy: a sub-study of the SECONDLINE trial. 7th IAS Conference, Kuala Lumpar, 2013, Late breaker oral abstract WELBB05.
http://pag.ias2013.org/Abstracts.aspx?SID=74&AID=2962

Brown TT et al. Recommendations for evaluation and management of bone disease in HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:1242-1251.
http://www.natap.org/2014/HIV/012315_01.htm

Mallon PWG and Brown TT (Editors). Bone complications in HIV/AIDS. Current Opinion in HIV & AIDS. May 2016 – Volume 11 – Issue 3.
http://journals.lww.com/co-hivandaids/toc/2016/05000

Erlandson KM et al. More than osteoporosis: age-specific issues in bone health. Current Opinion in HIV & AIDS. May 2016 – Volume 11 – Issue 3 – p 343–350. doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000258.
http://journals.lww.com/co-hivandaids/Abstract/2016/05000/More_than_osteoporosis___age_specific_issues_in.13.aspx

Corrilynn HO et al. Is bone loss linked to chronic inflammation in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected adults? A 48-week matched cohort study. AIDS (2014), 28: 1759-1767.
http://www.natap.org/2014/HIV/Is_bone_loss_linked_to_chronic_inflammation_in.98322.pdf (PDF)

Sherwood JE et al. Vitamin D deficiency and its association with bone low mineral density, HIV-related factors, hospitalization, and death in a predominantly black HIV-infected cohort. Clin Infect Dis (2012), 55: 1727-1736
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/12/1727.long

El-Maouche D et al. Vitamin D deficiency and its relation to bone mineral density and liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection. Antivir Ther (2013), 18: 237-242
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3790468/pdf/nihms518663.pdf (PDF)

Morse CG et al. Elevations in D-dimer and C-reactive protein are associated with the development of osteonecrosis of the hip in HIV-infected adults. AIDS 27(4):591–595. 20 February 2013. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835c206a.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2013/02200/Elevations_in_D_dimer_and_C_reactive_protein_are.11.aspx

Grijsen M et al. Low bone mineral density in men who have sex with men regardless of HIV status. J Infect Dis. (2012) doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis687. First published online: November 12, 2012
http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/207/3/386
http://www.natap.org/2013/HIV/JInfectDisGrijsen38691.pdf (PDF full text)

Dao C et al. Higher and increasing rates of fracture among HIV-infected persons in the HIV Outpatient Study compared to the general US population, 1994 to 2008. 17th CROI. 16-10 February 2010, San Francisco. Oral abstract 128.
http://www.retroconference.org/2010/Abstracts/37582.htm

Rozenberg S et al. Effect of alendronate on HIV-related osteoporosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ANRS 120). 12th EACS, 11-14 November 2009, Cologne. Abstract PS5/4. 2.

McComsey G et al. Alendronate with calcium and vitamin D supplementation is safe and effective for the treatment of decreased bone mineral density in HIV. AIDS: 30 November 2007 – Volume 21 – Issue 18 – p 2473-2482 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282ef961d.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2007/11300/Alendronate_with_calcium_and_vitamin_D.13.aspx

McComsey G et al. Bone disease in HIV infection: a practical review and recommendations for HIV care providers. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2010; 51(8):937–946 (15 October). doi: 10.1086/656412.
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/656412

Mondy K et al. Alendronate, vitamin D, and calcium for the treatment of osteopenia/osteoporosis associated with HIV infection. JAIDS,1 April 2005 – Volume 38 – Issue 4 – pp 426-431.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2005/04010/Alendronate,_Vitamin_D,_and_Calcium_for_the.7.aspx

Mundy L et al. Overall benefit of antiretroviral treatment on the risk of fracture in HIV: nested case–control analysis in a health-insured population. AIDS. 26(9):1073-1082, June 1, 2012.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2012/06010/Overall_benefit_of_antiretroviral_treatment_on_the.3.aspx

Yin MT et al. Fracture incidence in HIV-infected women: results from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. AIDS: 20 September 2010 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833f6294.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/publishahead/Fracture_incidence_in_HIV_infected_women__results.99375.aspx

Grund B. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density. AIDS: 31 July 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 12 – p 1519-1529 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832c1792.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2009/07310/Continuous_antiretroviral_therapy_decreases_bone.10.aspx

Borderi M. Editorial Review. Metabolic bone disease in HIV infection. AIDS: 17 July 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 11 – p 1297-1310 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832ce85a.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2009/07170/Metabolic_bone_disease_in_HIV_infection.2.aspx

Huang J. A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of zoledronate therapy for HIV-associated osteopenia and osteoporosis. AIDS: 2 January 2009 – Volume 23 – Issue 1 – p 51-57 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32831c8adc.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2009/01020/A_double_blinded,_randomized_controlled_trial_of.8.aspx

HIV and cancer

Piketty C et al. Lack of regression of anal squamous intrapathelial lesions despite immune restoration under cART. AIDS. 2013 Jan 28;27(3):401-6. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835ad2cb.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2013/01280/Lack_of_regression_of_anal_squamous.10.aspx

Petoumenos K et al. Cancer, immunodeficiency and antiretroviral treatment: results from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). HIV Medicine. 2013 Feb 14(2):77-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01038.x.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01038.x/abstract

NIH/IDSA Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents, 10 April 2009.
http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/GuidelineDetail.aspx?MenuItem=Guidelines&Search=Off&GuidelineID=211&ClassID=4

Engels EA et al. Cancer risk in people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States. International Journal of Cancer 2008; 123(1):187-194.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.23487/full

Kikuchi L et al (Liver Cancer in HIV Study Group). Impact of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients on staging, therapy and survival. 45th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL 2010). Vienna, Austria. April 14-18, 2010. (Abstract).
http://www.kenes.com/easl2010/Posters/Abstract952.htm

Bedimo RJ et al. Incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected versus noninfected patients in the HAART era: impact of immunosuppression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2009/10010/Incidence_of_Non_AIDS_Defining_Malignancies_in.6.aspx

Bratcher J, Palefsky J. Anogenital Human Papillomavirus coinfection and associated neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women. PRN Notebook, Volume 13, 2008.
http://www.prn.org/index.php/coinfections/article/anogenital_hpv_neoplasia_hiv_positive_502

Guiguet M et al. Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncology. 2009.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045%2809%2970282-7/fulltext

d’Arminio Monforte A et al for D:A:D study. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. AIDS: 18 October 2008 – Volume 22 – Issue 16 – p 2143-2153 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283112b77.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/10180/HIV_induced_immunodeficiency_and_mortality_from.12.aspx

Grulich AE et al. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370(9581):59-67.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2807%2961050-2/fulltext

Sigel K et al. HIV infection is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. 17th CROI. 16-10 February 2010, San Francisco. Oral Abstract 30.
http://www.retroconference.org/2010/Abstracts/38365.htm

Bower M. Screening for non-AIDS malignancies: if and how? 12th EACS, 11-14 November, 2009, Cologne. Webcast:
http://www.multiwebcast.com/eacs/2009/12th/4149

Lifestyle changes: diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol

Diet

ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. European Heart Journal (2011) 32, 1769–1818 doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr158.

http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/06/27/eurheartj.ehr158
http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/GuidelinesDocuments/guidelines-dyslipidemias-FT.pdf (PDF file)

Estruch R et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:1279-1290. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1200303. (04 April 2013)
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1200303

Goodarz D et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 4. (02 April 2009)
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000058

Dietary reference values for energy, scientific advisory committee on nutrition, 2011
http://www.sacn.gov.uk/reports_position_statements/reports/sacn_dietary_reference_values_for_energy.html

Fruit and vegetables for health, report of a joint FAO/WHO workshop, 1-3 September 2004, Kobe, Japan.
http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/fruit/en/

Food Standard Agency (FSA) and Food Based Guidelines for UK Institutions (October 2008).
http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/nutguideuk.pdf (PDF file)

US Centre for Disease Control (CDC). Americans consume too much sodium (Salt).
http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsSodium/

Exercise

Healy GN et al. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: the Australian diabetes, obesity and lifestyle study (AusDiab). Diabetes Care vol. 31 no. 2 pages 369-371. (February 2008).
http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/31/2/369.short

Janssen I, LeBlanc AG. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (2010) 7:40. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-7-40
http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/7/1/40

Lee CD et al. Physical activity and stroke risk, a meta-analysis. Stroke. 2003; 34: 2475-2481.
http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/34/10/2475.abstract

WHO. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. (2006)
http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/9789241599979/en/index.html

Trøseid M et al. Reduced trunk fat and triglycerides after strength training are associated with reduced LPS levels in HIV-infected individuals. JAIDS. 2014 Jun 1;66(2):e52-4.
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Citation/2014/06010/Reduced_Trunk_Fat_and_Triglycerides_After_Strength.22.aspx

Fazeli PL et al. An active lifestyle is associated with better neurocognitive functioning in adults living with HIV infection. Journal of Neurovirology. 2014 Jun;20(3):233-42.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24554483

Mapstone M et al. Poor aerobic fitness may contribute to cognitive decline in HIV-infected older adults. Aging and Disease. 2013 Aug 27;4(6):311-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24307964  (abstract)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843648/ (free full text)

Dufour CA et al. Physical exercise is associated with less neurocognitive impairment among HIV-infected adults. Journal of Neurovirology. 2013 Oct;19(5):410-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23934585

Mattson MP. Exercise and the brain: a slap on the HAND. Editorial. J. Neurovirol. (2013) 19:407–409 DOI 10.1007/s13365-013-0208-4.
http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/248/art%253A10.1007%252Fs13365-013-0208-4.pdf?auth66=1408781646_615de5b160b637d3be605346590a71df&ext=.pdf  (PDF)

Smoking

Helleberg M et al. Smoking and life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in Europe and North America. AIDS (14 January 2015), 29: 221 – 9.
http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2015&issue=01140&article=00010&type=abstract

Helleberg m et al. Mortality attributable to smoking among HIV-1-infected individuals: a nationwide, population-based cohort study. Clin Infect Dis (2013), 56:727–734.
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/5/727.long

Cahill K et al. 2012. Can nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine, dianicline and varenicline, help people to stop smoking? Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006103. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006103.pub6
http://summaries.cochrane.org/CD006103/can-nicotine-receptor-partial-agonists-including-cytisine-dianicline-and-varenicline-help-people-to-stop-smoking

Alcohol

Justice AC et al. Risk of mortality and physiologic injury evident with lower alcohol exposure among HIV infected compared with uninfected men. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Jan 2016. (16) 00045-4.
http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/02/09/infdis.jiw038.abstract?papetoc
http://www.drugandalcoholdependence.com/article/S0376-8716(16)00045-4/pdf (PDF)

Akgun KM et al. Risk factors for hospitalization and medical intensive care unit (MICU) admission among HIV-infected Veterans. J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr. 2013. (62) 52-59
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4182723/pdf/nihms421169.pdf (PDF)

McGinnis KA. Number of drinks to “feel a buzz” varies by HIV Status and viral load in men. AIDS Behav. 2015. 1-8.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10461-015-1053-7

Braithwaite RS and Bryant KJ. Influence of alcohol consumption on adherence to and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy and survival. Alcohol Res. Health. 2010. (33) 280-287.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860503/pdf/arh-33-3-280.pdf (PDF)

Last updated: 1 September 2017.