diabetes – when the body either does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that helps the body turn sugar into energy) or is not responding to insulin (insulin resistance). There are two main types of diabetes and they have different mechanisms and treatments.

Type-1 is mainly reported in children but can also occur in adults and is linked to genetic risks.

Type-2 is mainly reported in adults (but increasingly in children) and is more commonly related to lifestyle factors including diet, exercise, weight/BMI. Some medications can increase the risk of Type-2 diabetes.

Diabetes can also be a side effect, including from some early HIV drugs, and this is sometimes referred to as a third type. This is because it was primarily caused as a side effect, rather than being driven by either lifestyle factors or genetics.

Other commonly-used drugs that can affect glucose regulation include corticosteroids and some drugs to reduce high blood pressure, or lipids.