HIV Treatment Bulletin

Fit for purpose: antiretroviral treatment optimisation

2015 Pipeline Report coverBy Polly Clayden

The most striking news since the 2014 Pipeline Report is from the START (Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment) study. [1] We now have evidence from a large, randomised, controlled trial to show that CD4 count is no longer a barrier to starting antiretroviral treatment (ART).

START results mean that guidelines worldwide should soon recommend ART to all HIV positive people. This will bring on the mammoth task of starting and keeping 35 million on treatment. [2] If ever there was a time when ART needs to be optimised – that is safe, effective, tolerable, durable, simple and affordable – it is now. [3]

One way to optimise antiretrovirals is by dose reduction. [4] The rationale is that when new drugs are developed, the highest tolerated doses in phase II are often selected for phase III and approval. In some cases lower doses might have equivalent efficacy and better tolerability. It might also be possible to reduce the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with improved bioavailability through reformulation – and reduced API means reduced cost.

Since discussions on treatment optimisation began the field has evolved and newer antiretrovirals have been approved. [5, 6, 7] Focus has shifted from merely making older drugs more efficient. Speeding up the introduction of generic versions of newer drugs – in appropriate regimens and formulations – into low-and middle-income countries is likely to produce the best options. [8, 9, 10]

Treatment optimisation is one critical component to achieving universal access to ART. Last year’s report provided more background on optimising treatment and how this might be achieved. [11]

Important steps towards optimised treatment over the past year include:

  • The first generic version of dolutegravir (DTG) submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for tentative approval. [12]
  • Published 96-week data from ENCORE1 – continuing to show that a lower dose of efavirenz (EFV) is non-inferior to the currently approved one. [13, 14]
  • A new formulation of tenofovir alafanemide fumarate (TAF) [15] submitted to the FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) – albeit within a fixed dose combination (FDC) and a co-formulation with agents that complicate its recommendation in low- and middle-income settings. [16, 17, 18]

This chapter gives an update on antiretroviral treatment optimisation trials and strategies – both ongoing and planned – and pipeline products for low- and middle-income countries. It also looks at missing evidence that is needed to change current recommendations.

Can we do better with what we have?

As we go to press, discussions about the recommendations for the 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are afoot. For adults the current (2013) guidelines include the regimens in Table 1. [19]

Table 1. WHO recommended adult ART regimens 2013
First line TDF + 3TC (or FTC) + EFV preferred (including pregnant women)
AZT alternative to TDF
NVP alternative to EFV
Second line ATV/r or LPV/r preferred
+ TDF + 3TC preferred backbone (if AZT or d4T first-line)
+ AZT + 3TC preferred
(if TDF first-line)
Third line No specific recommendations: Integrase inhibitor (INI) or second-generation PI or NNRTI are mentioned
ATV/r, atazanavir/ritonavir; AZT, zidovudine; d4T,stavudine; EFV,efavirenz; FTC,emtricitabine; LPV/r, lopinavir/ritonavir; NVP, nevirapine; TDF, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; 3TC, lamivudine.

Several dose optimisation trials and a reformulation programme, relevant to these recommendations, are ongoing or have been completed. Some require more information before the new dose or formulation can be widely recommended. See Table 2.

Table 2. Antiretrovirals with potential for optimisation
Compound/Approved dose Class Sponsor/approach Outcomes Status
TDF
300 mg once daily
NtRTI CHAI in partnership with generic companiesReformulation Approx 33% reduction anticipatedTarget 200 mg TDF-containing FDC tablet TDF (xb)Bioequivalence completedResults available August 1015
AZT
300 mg twice daily
NRTI Geneva University HospitalDose optimisationRCT Dose reduced to 200mg twice daily MiniZIDPhase IIICompleted January 2014No difference between arms in overall anemia rate at 24 weeks
d4T
30 mg twice daily
NRTI Wits Reproductive Health InstituteDose optimisation and comparison with TDFRCT Dose reduced to 20mg twice daily WHCS-001Phase IIITo be completed end 2015/early 2016
EFV
600 mg once daily
NNRTI Kirby InstituteDose optimisationRCT Dose reduced to 400 mg once daily ENCORE 1400 mg non-inferior to 600 mg at 96 weeks
ATV/r
300/100 mg once daily
PI HIVNAT/Kirby InstituteRCT Dose reduced to 200/100 LASA IIIPhase IV to be completed June 2015
ATV/r, atazanavir/ritonavir; AZT, zidovudine; d4T, stavudine; EFV, efavirenz; TDF, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRtI, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

With the exceptions of TDF (xb), EFV 400 mg and darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) – discussed in the following section – since the trials began, optimising existing antiretrovirals has become less relevant.

Lower dose AZT (400 mg) did not show an improvement in overall anaemia rate – the primary endpoint – compared with the standard dose (600mg) in a randomised trial conducted in Cameroon. [20]

The trial that dare not speak its name – of lower dose d4T (20 mg) – will yield more data from a low- or middle-income country on TDF. [21] But d4T has not been recommended at higher doses anywhere for some time and we are not anticipating a revival. By 2018, d4T is expected to be only 2% of the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) market. [22]

The results of the low dose atazanavir/ritonavir (200/100 mg) trial are not expected to be applicable outside Thailand, where it is being conducted. [23]

What are the ones to watch?

In the Clinton Health Access Initiative’s (CHAI) 2014 ARV Market Report the authors write: “The global community is coalescing around a short list of products that have shown superior or non-inferior efficacy compared to existing alternatives but also offer improved durability and tolerability, higher bioavailability, lower pill burden, and the potential for lower frequencies of adverse events.” [24]

These products are: EFV 400 mg, DTG, TDF(xb), TAF and DRV/r, which have also featured annually in this Pipeline Report chapter.

Despite having coalesced for quite a while now, at a WHO Think Tank convened in February 2015, [25] the expert group recognised that a greater body of evidence supports the use of EFV 600 mg first-line (an estimated 15 million patient years when combined with TDF/XTC – meaning either FTC or 3TC). [26] The group suggested that this evidence provides a level of confidence that is not currently there with the alternatives: EFV 400 mg and DTG.

Both TDF (xb) and TAF are still in development and a WHO recommendation for DRV/r has been delayed due to a lack of a heat stable co-formulated generic version (which has been delayed due to a lack of a WHO recommendation).

Efavirenz 400 mg

EFV 600 mg fulfils many of the characteristics in the target product profile as part of an ideal ART regimen. For those who tolerate the drug, it is safe and effective, can be used in pregnancy and in people receiving concomitant TB treatment and needs minimal laboratory monitoring.

But it has a low genetic barrier to resistance. It is also associated with central nervous system (CNS) side effects, which can lead to drug discontinuation, reported in as many as half the people receiving it in settings with access to alternatives. [27] There is also an interaction between EFV and some hormonal contraceptives that can reduce their efficacy. [28]

A recent meta-analysis found that over 90% of treatment-naive people remained on an EFV-based first line regimen after an average follow up of 78 weeks. [29] But CNS side effects were more frequent with this antiretroviral compared to a number of others. People with HIV and activists have reported these adverse events as flaws of EFV since it was first approved. [30]

The ENCORE 1 study, showing 400 mg EFV to be non-inferior to 600 mg, was completed in July 2013. The 48-week results were published in The Lancet in April 2014. [31] There have been no surprises at 96 weeks. [32]

The study found a reduced dose of 400 mg EFV non-inferior to the 600 mg standard dose (both plus TDF/FTC) in 636 treatment-naive participants at 48 weeks. It was conducted in Europe, Australasia, Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

Significantly fewer participants (2% versus 6%, p=0.01) discontinued treatment due to EFV-related side effects (rash, CNS, gastrointestinal, but not psychiatric) in the 400 mg arm compared to the 600 mg arm and 10% fewer reported these side effects.

A very high proportion (approximately 90%) of participants had an undetectable viral load in this study. Extended follow up to 96-weeks continued to demonstrate non-inferiority of 400 mg EFV.

Results from a pharmacokinetic sub-study of ENCORE 1 suggest that the current targets for EFV could be too high. [33] There has also been a suggestion from the FDA that the original approved dose might be too high. [34]

Since the announcement of the trial results in 2013, there has been much discussion about recommending the reduced dose, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the resulting cost savings would be considerable.

Questions about whether or not 400 mg would be robust in the third trimester of pregnancy and with TB treatment have delayed recommendations from WHO and national guidelines.

There are six studies that include 235 women treated with 600 mg EFV in pregnancy in which drug concentrations were not significantly affected and there were high rates of viral load suppression in the mothers at the time of delivery. [35] The results suggest that pregnancy has slight if any clinically important effects on EFV pharmacokinetics.

A South African study of 97 pregnant women (44 with TB) found that pregnancy increased the rate of low EFV plasma concentrations, but vertical transmission was rare. [36] A detectable viral load at delivery was more common among pregnant women with TB, but antiretroviral treatment was generally started later in this group. Another small study also found lower EFV plasma concentrations during pregnancy but the authors suggested that the clinical implications are unknown. [37]

For rifampicin, there have been seven short-term pharmacokinetic studies with EFV 600 mg (less than two weeks) showing reduction in plasma concentrations. It is unclear how useful these results are when EFV has not reached steady state. Five longer-term studies in HIV positive people have shown increased Cmin or no effect. [38]

In order to make a universal recommendation for EFV 400 mg results from pharmacokinetic studies with rifampicin and in pregnant women are necessary.

Results from a pharmacokinetic substudy of ENCORE1 suggest that although 400 mg gives cerebrospinal fluid exposure (CSF) exposure of EFV above that required for HIV suppression, exposure of metabolites might still be within the concentration range associated with toxicities. [39] Although significant, the reduction in EFV-associated adverse events was modest in ENCORE1 and the pharmacokinetic study suggests this possible explanation.

Last year, three leading HIV doctors suggested that the dominant role of EFV in first-line therapy should be reconsidered. [40] They wrote that “this should not only happen in high-income countries but ideally also in low-income settings, if alternative drugs are available, and this recommendation should be reflected in the treatment guidelines of the WHO and both governmental and non-governmental organisations”.

But for low- and middle-income countries, EFV is likely to remain a recommended first-line antiretroviral for a while. For countries where generics are not accessible until a drug is off patent this is likely to be for some time. While EFV remains an option, it is important that the pharmacokinetic studies to look at TB and pregnancy are funded and conducted to ensure that the most optimised dose is given.

CHAI is working with suppliers to develop and file EFV 400 mg as part of an FDC with TDF and 3TC. [41] ENCORE1 data will be filed as an Investigational New Drug (IND), be cross-referenced in the suppliers’ New Drug Applications (NDA) and be used as the basis for FDA tentative approval. The first filing is anticipated in the first quarter of 2016. FDA has agreed to the filing strategy for the product.

Dolutegravir

Excitable reviewers have found it hard to swerve from describing DTG as: “game-changing”. [42] With a low 50 mg once daily dose that does not require boosting, a very high barrier to resistance, good efficacy, minimal toxicity, pregnancy category B, and the potential to be low-cost and co-formulated, it looks like it will be an important potential option for use in low- and middle-income countries. It could replace EFV first-line. It is also predicted to cost about US$30 per patient per year (pppy) to manufacture.

DTG was superior to EFV at 48 weeks in antiretroviral naive patients in phase III trials (and remained so at 96 weeks). [43, 44] At 48 weeks the proportion of participants who discontinued treatment due to adverse events was lower in the DTG group than in the EFV group (2% vs 10%). Rash and CNS events frequently associated with EFV were significantly more common in the EFV group.

Data from this comparison and from studies comparing DTG to raltegravir (RAL) and in people with resistance to other integrase inhibitors [45, 46] were used to gain approval for a broad indication in adults and adolescents aged 12 and above. [47] The indication for 12 to 18 year olds is based on a 24-week open-label label study in integrase inhibitor-naive participants.

DTG studies have not yet included significant numbers of people who would be treated in low-and middle-income countries. The registrational trials for DTG comprised approximately 80% men and few non-white participants and hardly anyone co-infected with other diseases (a few with hepatitis B and none with TB or malaria). People with baseline NRTI resistance were not included.

Information about treating HIV/TB coinfection with a DTG-based regimen is limited. A phase I study has been conducted in healthy volunteers of DTG given with rifampicin and with rifabutin. [48] The study suggested that 50 mg twice daily dosing is likely to be required when it is co-administered with rifampicin to overcome UGT1A/CYP3A induction by this drug, which is used in standard first-line TB treatment.

As yet information about DTG in pregnant women is scarce. Although animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, no safety issues were revealed in preclinical studies. So far only one first trimester and four second/third trimester exposures have been reported to the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) to 31 July 2014. [49]

For DTG to be recommended in WHO guidelines without restriction, more information is needed on how it is likely to perform in real world, low- or middle-income settings. Populations in these settings include larger proportions of women of childbearing age, children, and people with TB, malaria, and other coinfections. [50]

ViiV Healthcare (the originator of DTG), Aurobindo Pharma, and CHAI recently announced that Aurobindo has submitted an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for generic DTG 50mg, to the FDA for tentative approval. [51]

This is the first ANDA for a generic version of DTG and has been made within two years from FDA approval of originator DTG for the US. ViiV has provided a selective waiver to the FDA for the five-year period of New Chemical Entity exclusivity, which would have prevented tentative approval of Aurobino’s ANDA. This product is expected to gain tentative approval in the first quarter of 2016. Several generic manufacturers are working on FDCs of DTG /TDF/3TC.

ViiV has also licensed DTG to the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP). [52] The agreements for both adult and paediatric treatment were signed just two months after DTG was approved by the EMA and eight months after FDA approval.

New and better versions of tenofovir

TDF (xb)

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) – the current formulation of tenofovir – is recommended globally as part of first-line treatment and used widely in high-, low- and middle-income settings.

The downside of TDF is its potential for renal and bone toxicity. There are limits to the lowest possible price of TDF with the current formulation, due to its high milligram dose (300 mg).

CHAI is developing a dosage form of TDF called TDF (xb) in partnership with companies performing the preclinical work, formulation screening and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), and a generic manufacturer. [53]

With the current TDF 300 mg formulation only 25% of tenofovir is absorbed into the bloodstream. By reformulating the excipients CHAI aims to increase bioavailability and, in turn, lower the dose to an anticipated 200 mg, while maintaining equivalent exposure to that achieved with the current formulation.

Bioequivalence studies will compare TDF (xb) to the 300 mg originator formulation of TDF to provide evidence for tentative FDA approval of TDF (xb)-containing FDCs. The goal is to reach the market with a TDF (xb)-containing FDC in 2017.

TAF

Gilead Sciences has developed a new version of tenofovir: tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF).

TAF is not yet approved but it has been submitted to the FDA and EMA as a component of an FDC with elvitegravir/cobicistat and FTC (E/C/F/TAF) and a co-formulation with FTC (F/TAF). [54, 55, 56, 57] The FDA applications were filed in November 2014 with expected approval November 2015 and April 2015 with expected approval November 2016, respectively.

Besides Gilead’s incestuous combinations, other TAF-containing FDCs in development are collaborations with Janssen: darunavir/cobicistat/FTC/TAF (D/C/F/TAF) and rilpivirine/FTC/TAF (R/F/TAF).

Both TDF and TAF are prodrugs of tenofovir. TAF doses are one tenth or less than that of TDF and give intracellular levels of the active metabolite, tenofovir diphosphate, which are four to seven times higher and plasma concentrations that are 90% lower than those with TDF. [58, 59, 60]

It is possible that the reduction in plasma concentrations with TAF could mean less tenofovir accumulation in bone and kidneys and, in turn, fewer bone and kidney associated toxicities compared with TDF. [8]

Due to a drug-drug interaction between TAF and cobicistat (or ritonavir) that increases the levels of tenofovir 2.5-fold, a dose of 10 mg is being used in regimens with boosting agents and 25 mg in un-boosted ones. F/TAF will be produced in 10 mg and 25 mg TAF plus 200 mg FTC co-formulated tablets.

The reduced dose means less API and potentially considerable reductions in generic prices (this could eventually be an annual patient cost of less than US$20); [61, 62] it will also mean smaller tablet sizes.

The regulatory applications for F/TAF (described in the antiretroviral chapter of this Pipeline Report) are supported by the phase III trials of E/C/F/TAF [63] and an adolescent study, [64] plus bioequivalence data for F/TAF and E/C/F/TAF.

Results from these trials might not be sufficient to inform the production of generic FDCs without boosting agents, as identified as a potential optimised first-line regimen in several expert consultations. [65, 66]

Ongoing studies combining F/TAF with third agents are switching participants on stable treatment from TDF to TAF. [67, 68] Although DTG might be the third agent in the open label switch study, it would probably not generate appropriate data in treatment-naive people to allow WHO recommendation for first-line regimens. So even if the FDA and EMA approve TAF in 2015/2016, guidance and uptake in low- and middle-income countries could be delayed.

Independent investigators, generic manufacturers and organisations such as CHAI and UNITAID might be better placed to establish this evidence and take on the development of a DTG and TAF-based FDC than the originator manufacturers. One study is in the planning stage.

There are potential licensing hurdles with possible combination products under the current Gilead/MPP license. [69] CHAI is working with Gilead and MPP to clarify the licensing of TAF to allow specific FDCs for low- and middle-income countries.

At least one generic manufacturer plans to develop and file a DTG-containing FDC with FTC and TAF, anticipated in 2018.

Darunavir/ritonavir

Darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) is generally considered to be the most potent and tolerable protease inhibitor, but as yet there is no generic formulation, and cost has been a barrier to its wide use. WHO has not yet recommended DRV/r for second-line treatment and there has been limited work on its optimisation.

This drug has different approved doses for treatment-naive (and treatment- experienced without DRV-associated mutations) and protease inhibitor-experienced patients. Treatment-naive patients receive DRV/r at an 8:1 (800/100 mg) ratio once daily, and experienced patients at a 6:1 ratio (600/100 mg) twice daily.

No dose-finding studies have ever been conducted with DRV/r in treatment- naive people and the original studies were conducted in people who were highly protease inhibitor-experienced. [70, 71] Results from these trials of DRV/r, as well as two with 600/100 mg, [72, 73] suggest that a dose reduction to DRV/r 400/100 mg might be feasible.

There are also potential cost efficiencies to be gained through process chemistry and reformulation.

Several generic manufacturers have been developing a co-formulation of DRV/r 400/50 mg (800/100 mg once daily, two pills). As ritonavir is tricky to make in a heat stable formulation there have been technical hitches with this product development. One manufacturer seems to have overcome these obstacles and anticipates an FDA filing for tentative approval in the second quarter of 2016. [74]

What is planned or needed to recommend the new drugs and formulations?

Several trials are underway or planned (see table 3) that should fill some of the remaining evidence gaps.

Table 3: Ongoing or planned ART optimisation trials
Trial Implementer/Sponsor Design Status Information gained
Low dose efavirenz
EFV 400 mg pregnancy SSAT/Mylan PK EFV 400 mg in third trimester pregnancy and post partum in 25 womenSites in London and Kampala Starting July 2015 Supporting data to ENCORE1
EFV 400 mg TB SSAT PK EFV 400 mg with isoniazid and rifampicin in 26 participantsSites in London and Kampala Funding application stage Supporting data to ENCORE1
ULTRA-HAART EFV 200 vs 400 vs 600 mg UK MRC EFV 200 vs 400 vs 600 mg once daily, non-inferiority plus superior tolerability with reduced doses96 weeksMultinational Funding application stage Further experience with EFV400mg plus 200 mg
Dolutegravir
DTG/FTC/TDF vs DTG/FTC/TAF Wits RHI DTG/FTC/TDF vs DTG/FTC/TAF in 600 ART-naive participantsPhase IIIFew exclusion criteria – adults according to WHO 2015 guidelinesNo baseline resistance testingPercentage with HIV RNA<200 copies/mL at 48 Weeks (FDA snapshot algorithm)South Africa Funding application stage Data on safety and efficacy of DTG-based regimens first lineComparison TAF vs TAF 25 mgSupport inclusion in 2017 WHO guidelines
NAMSAL
ANRS 12313
HIV OPD (Central Hospital) and CNPS Hospital (Yaounde)ANRS DTG vs EFV 400mg, both plus 3TC/TDF in 550 ART-naive participantsPhase IIIFew exclusion criteria – adults according to WHO 2013 guidelinesNo baseline resistance testingPercentage with HIV RNA<200 copies/mL at 48 Weeks (FDA snapshot algorithm)Two sites in Cameroon Fully funded by ANRSAwaiting DTG supply Data on TDF/3TC/DTG as 1st line ART in low-income country
DolPHIN1 (dolutegravir in pregnant HIV mothers and neonates) University of Liverpool/ Makere University/ ViiV DTG PK in pregnant women in third trimester and post partum during breastfeedingPhase II60 late presenting women (after 28 weeks gestation)Women randomised 1:1 to receive DTG (50 mg once daily) or standard of care (EFV) plus two NRTIsSites in Uganda Start July 2015Completion July 2016 Data on 3rd trimester PKSecondary outcomes include: safety and tolerability of DTG up to 6 months post partum and VL at delivery
ARIA ViiV DTG/ABC/3TC FDC vs ATV/ r +TDF/FTC in 474 treatment naive womenPhase IIIbPregnancy and breast feeding are exclusion criteria but women who become pregnant in ARIA can rollover to ING200336Multinational, sites in South Africa48 weeks UnderwayStart August 2013Completion April 2018Primary completion September 2015 Data on women
ING200336
Pharmacokinetic and safety study in pregnant women with HIV
ViiV PK and safety single arm study of women with unintended pregnancies while participating in ARIAEstimated enrolment 25 (approx 237 receive study drug in ARIA)Multinational, sites in South Africa Start October 2014Completion February 2019 Data on 2nd/3rd trimester PK
IMPAACT 1026s V9
Pharmacokinetic properties of antiretroviral and related drugs during pregnancy and postpartum
NIH PKPhase IVPregnant women > 20 weeks gestation receiving DTG as part of clinical careEach study arm 12 to 25 (target) women with evaluable 3rd trimester PK dataOpen to all IMPAACT sites September 2014May 2016 Data on 2nd/3rd trimester PK
PANNA
Pharmacokinetics of newly developed ANtiretroviral agents in HIV-infected pregNAnt women
PANNA Network PK, safety and efficacyPregnant women receiving DTG as part of clinical careTarget 16 womenOpen to all PANNA sites June 2015 until target PK data from 3rd and at 4 to 6 weeks post-partum.
Open label study of DTG vs EFV for HIV/TB coinfection ViiV 50 mg DTG twice daily vs 600 mg EFV (randomised 3:2 ratio) during TB treatment (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) in 125 treatment naive participantsPhase IIIb48 weeksMultinational, sites in South Africa Start November 2014Completion December 2018Primary completion 2016Not yet enrolling Data on HIV/TB first line co-treatment
Tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg
Switch study to evaluate F/TAF inHIV positive participants who are virologically suppressed on regimens containing FTC/TDF Gilead Double blinded study in 660 virologically stable adults receiving FTC/TDF plus open label 3rd agent randomised to continue vs switch to FTC/10mg or 25mg TAF (dosing will be dependent on 3rd agent)Phase III48/96 weeksSites in US, Canada and Europe Start May 2014Completion October 2016Primary completion November 2015 Data on unboosted TAF (dolutegravir, efavirenz, raltegravir and rilpivirine allowed)Total number of participants receiving unboosted dose unknown
Switch study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FTC/RPV/TAF FDC in HIV positive adults who are virologically suppressed on FTC/RPV/TDF Gilead Double blinded study in 550 virologically stable adults receiving RPV/FTC/TDF FDC randomised to continue vs switch to RPV/FTC/ 25mg TAF FDCPhase IIIb48 weeksSites in US, Canada and Europe Start January 2015Completion June 2017Primary completion June 2016 Data on 25 mg TAF
IMPAACT 1026s V9
Pharmacokinetic properties of antiretroviral and related drugs during pregnancy and postpartum
NIH PKPhase IVPregnant women > 20 weeks gestation receiving TAF as part of clinical careEach study arm 12 to 25 (target) women with evaluable 3rd trimester PK dataOpen to all IMPAACT sites September 2014May 2016 Data on 2nd/3rd trimester PK
Second line low dose DRV/r (including plus DTG)
DRV/r 400/100 mg
South Africa
Wits RHI/SA DoH 200 2nd line participants stable on LPV/r+2 NRTI twice daily to stay or switch to DRV/r 400/100mg once daily48 weeks Seeking DRV/r supply Clinical experience of low dose DRV in switch study
DRV/r 400/100 mg
France
ANRS Single arm 100 stable participants switch to DRV 400/100 once daily plus 2 NRTI Ongoing Clinical experience of low dose DRV in switch study
SL2 pilot SSAT DTG+DRV/r 400/100mg once-daily vs DTG+DRV/r 800/100 once daily vs TDF/FTC+DRV/r once daily in 120 treatment naive participants48 weeks Funding application stage Preliminary data to support registration study
SL2 registration SSAT DTG+DRV/r 400/100 vs TDF/FTC+DRV/r 800/100 once daily in 600 1st line experienced participants Powered for non-inferiority 96 weeksAfrica/SE Asia Funding application stage Data for FDA, PEPFAR and WHO approval

First-line

Experts agree that a DTG-based preferred first-line regimen is the current goal. In combination with TAF and FTC the total daily dose would be 275 mg compared to 1200 mg with the current WHO preferred first-line: EFV 600 mg/TDF/3TC. For people who cannot access (or tolerate) DTG, EFV 400 mg based regimens should be an alternative first-line.

While data gaps remain, both compounds should, at the very least, have an honorable mention in the WHO 2015 guidelines.

ViiV is sponsoring a number of trials to help to address some of the evidence gaps with DTG – including use in pregnant women and people receiving TB treatment. An open label study of regimens containing 50 mg DTG twice daily or EFV 600 mg once daily during first-line TB treatment, begun enrolling early 2015. [75]

Another trial is enrolling ART-naive women only and comparing first-line DTG regimens to boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) ones. [76] Women who become pregnant in the trial will remain on their randomly assigned regimen and roll over into a pregnancy study. [77]

A number of investigator-led studies are also planned in closer-to-real-life African settings. These include a randomised comparison between DTG and EFV 400 mg regimens, and another with two DTG-based regimens, one with TDF and the other TAF and FTC. NAMSAL, the trial of DTG versus EFV 400 mg regimens is fully funded but has been delayed now for some time due to the DTG supply (or lack of). The TAF versus TDF study is at the funding application stage and dependent of TAF being approved. A DTG pregnancy pharmacokinetics study is funded and scheduled to start enrolment in July 2015. [78]

IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA [79, 80] – the respective American and European studies that look at pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals in pregnancy and post-partum – are both starting to enrol women receiving DTG (and TAF is planned).

For EFV 400 mg, a pharmacokinetic study in pregnant women is scheduled to start enrolment in July 2015. Funding for the TB pharmacokinetic study is still under discussion.

Un-boosted TAF for adults is only being investigated in two Gilead trials [81, 82] – so in order to recommend this drug widely the investigator-led study is important.

IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA will provide some pharmacokinetic data on TAF in pregnant women. For co-treatment of TB, TAF is a minor CYP3A4 substrate and a substrate of P-glycoprotein, both of which are induced by rifampicin, so there might be an interaction. Gilead has not looked at this.

If DTG/TAF/FTC fulfils its early promise, is recommended, and generic FDCs are made available, there will be questions to be answered on the pros and cons of a wholesale switch from the current EFV-based first-line versus a gradual transition.

Second-line

For people failing EFV-based first-line treatment – and this population is expected to swell with greater access to viral load testing – discussions about a one-pill, once daily, second-line regimen with DRV/r 400/100mg and DTG are underway. [83] Studies to investigate this regimen are designed and seeking funding.

A regimen of DRV/r plus DTG has the potential to be once daily, heat stable, co-formulated second-line option with no cross-resistance to an EFV/TDF/3TC first-line. Market forecasts suggest that such an FDC might be available at low cost: US$250 pppy. Making recommendations for DTG first- and second-line depending on the initial regimen is not mutually exclusive.

If DTG becomes preferred first-line, research into the best option for second-line following this regimen is needed. Early discussions have included the possibility of DRV/r with rilpivirine or doravirine. It might also be possible to use NRTIs again. [84, 85]

What needs to be done?

  • The 2015 revised WHO guidelines must reflect recent research and approvals. DTG and EFV 400mg should be included as alternative first-line recommendations with restrictions where data are missing. DRV/r is overdue as a recommended second-line option. A recommendation from WHO is the biggest signal and incentive to generic manufacturers to produce new formulations and FDCs suitable for low- and middle-income countries.
  • Research must be funded. Donors need to step up and fund the trials that will generate data to fill the current knowledge gaps. We need the missing information to make first-line recommendations without restriction. We need information to guide switching from EFV to DTG regimens. We need studies to support recommendations for optimised second-line regimens.
  • Sustainable supply of generic antiretrovirals must be maintained. Three manufacturers (Mylan, Cipla, and Hetero) accounted for 51% of antiretroviral volume and 56% of revenue in low- and middle-income countries in 2013. [86] Mylan had the highest share of revenue at 24%. The company also has 30% of South African public sector market (the largest ART programme in the world); and it supplies many of the APIs for antiretrovirals produced by South African generic companies. [87] So the recent moves by the Israeli pharmaceutical company Teva for a hostile takeover of Mylan are alarming. [88] Should this come about Teva must continue with the commitment to people with HIV in low- and middle-income countries.

References

All links last accessed 12 June 2015.

CROI – Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections
IAS – International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention

  1. National Institutes of Health (Press release). Starting antiretroviral treatment early improves outcomes for HIV-infected individuals. 27 May 2015.
    http://www.nih.gov/news/health/may2015/niaid-27.htm
  2. UNAIDS. The GAP report. July 2014.
    http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/UNAIDS_Gap_report_en.pdf
  3. Clayden P. Fit for purpose: treatment optimization. i-Base/TAG. July 2014. http://www.pipelinereport.org/2014/fit-purpose-treatment-optimization
  4. Crawford KW, Brown Ripin DH, Levin AD, et al. Optimising the manufacturing, formulation, and dosage of antiretroviral drugs for more cost-efficient delivery in resource-limited settings: a consensus statement. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012; 12(7): 550-60.
    http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(12)70134-2/abstract
  5. Hill A. HAART for $125 a year: how can it be done? 8th European Conference on Clinical Aspects and Treatment of HIV-Infection; 2001 October 28-31; Athens, Greece.
  6. Hill A, Ananworanich J, Calmy A. Dose optimisation: A strategy to improve tolerability and lower antiretroviral drug prices in low and middle-income countries. Open Infect Dis J. 2010;(4): 85-91.
    http://www.benthamscience.com/open/toidj/articles/V004/SI0031TOIDJ/85TOIDJ.pdf
  7. World Health Organization. Short-term priorities for antiretroviral drug optimization; meeting report (London, UK, 18-19 April 2011). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
    http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501941_eng.pdf
  8. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), Solidarité thérapeutique hospitalière en réseau (Esther), Solidarité thérapeutique contre le sida (SOLTHIS). Antiretroviral sequencing meeting report; 22-23 September 2011. Geneva: Médecins Sans Frontières; 2011.
    http://www.msfaccess.org/sites/default/files/MSF_assets/HIV_AIDS/Docs/AIDS_Event_ SequencingMtg_Report_ENG_2011_FINAL.pdf
  9. World Health Organization. WHO informal consultation on medium- and long- term priorities for ARV drug optimization. (Montreux, Switzerland, 29-31 May 2012). http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/meetingreports/think_tank/en/index.html
  10. The Second Conference on Antiretroviral Drug Optimization (CADO 2) meeting report. July 2013.
    http://hivtreatmentoptimization.org/sites/default/files/documents/2010-11/ cado2meetingreportfinaljuly2013.pdf
  11. ibid.
  12. ViiV Healthcare, Aurobindo Pharma, and the Clinton Health Access Initiative (Press release). ViiV Healthcare and CHAI collaboration delivers second milestone with first filing with the FDA of generic dolutegravir by Aurobindo Pharma for the treatment of HIV. 26 May 2015.
    https://www.viivhealthcare.com/media/press-releases/2015/may/press-release.aspx
  13. ENCORE1 Study Group. Efficacy of 400 mg efavirenz versus standard 600 mg dose in HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive adults (ENCORE1): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. The Lancet. April 2014. 383(9927): 1474-82.
  14. ENCORE1 Study Group. Efficacy and safety of efavirenz 400 mg daily versus 600 mg daily: 96-week data from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority ENCORE1 study. Lancet Inf Dis. Published online 12 April 2015.
    http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(15)70060-5
  15. Sax PE, Wohl D, Yin MT, et al. Tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, coformulated with elvitegravir, cobicistat, and emtricitabine, for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: two randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority trials. Lancet. Published online 15 April 2015.
    http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)60616-X/fulltext?rss=yes
  16. Gilead Sciences (Press Release). Gilead submits new drug application to U.S. Food and Drug Administration for tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based single tablet regimen for HIV. 6 November 2014.
    https://gilead.com/news/press-releases/2014/11/gilead-submits-new-drug-application-to-us-food-and-drug-administration-for-tenofovir-alafenamide-tafbased-single-tablet-regimen-for-hiv.
  17. Gilead Sciences. Press Release. Gilead submits new drug application to U.S. Food and Drug Administration for fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide for HIV treatment. 7 April 2015.
    https://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2015/4/gilead-submits-new-drug-application-to-us-food-and-drug-administration-for-fixeddose-combination-of-emtricitabinetenofovir-alafenamide-for-hiv-treatment
  18. Gilead Sciences. Press Release. European Medicines Agency validates Gilead’s marketing application for fixed-Dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide for HIV treatment. 28 May 2015.
    http://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2015/5/european-medicines-agency-validates-gileads-marketing-application-for-fixeddose-combination-of-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-for-hiv-treatment?
  19. World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. Geneva: World Health Organization; June 2013. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/download/en/
  20. Rougemont MP, Nchotu Ngang P, Fampou JC, et al. The MiniZID study: a randomised controlled trial on safety of reduced dose (400 mg) of zidovudine compared with standard dose (600 mg) in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy. 20th IAS, Melbourne, Australia, 20-25 July 2015. Poster abstract LBPE16.
    http://pag.aids2014.org/abstracts.aspx?aid=11206
    http://pag.aids2014.org/EPosterHandler.axd?aid=11206
  21. Clinton Health Access Initiative. ARV Market Report. Issue 5. December 2014.
    http://www.clintonhealthaccess.org/news-and-information/ARV-Market-Report-Dec2014
  22. ibid.
  23. National Institutes of Health (US). Low dose atazanavir/r versus standard dose atazanavir/r (LASA).
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01159223
  24. Clinton Health Access Initiative. ARV Market Report. Issue 5. December 2014.
    http://www.clintonhealthaccess.org/news-and-information/ARV-Market-Report-Dec2014
  25. Vitoria M, Hill A, Ford N, et al. Choice of antiretroviral drugs for continued treatment scale up in a public health approach: what more do we need to know? Results from a World Health Organization Think Tank meeting. Forthcoming.
  26. Clinton Health Access Initiative. ARV Market Report. Issue 5. December 2014.
    http://www.clintonhealthaccess.org/news-and-information/ARV-Market-Report-Dec2014
  27. Leutscher PD, Stecher C, Storgaard M, et al. Discontinuation of efavirenz therapy in HIV patients due to neuropsychiatric adverse effects. Scand J Infect Dis.;45(8):645-51. Epub 21 February 2013.
  28. Scarsi K, Nakalema S, Byakika-Kibwik P, et al. Levonorgestrel implant + EFV-based ART: unintended pregnancies and associated PK data. CROI 2015. Seattle, Washington. 23-26 February 2015. Oral abstract 85LB.
    http://www.croiconference.org/sessions/levonorgestrel-implant-efv-based-art-unintended-pregnancies-and-associated-pk-data
  29. Ford N, Shubber Z, Pozniak A, et al. Comparative safety and neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with efavirenz use in first-line antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Published ahead of print 4 April 2015.
    http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=9000&issue=00000&article=97607&type=Abstract
  30. Sikwese K. Treatment optimisation – from the patient’s perspective. Perspectives on HIV and Hepatitis C drug optimisation and implications for future updates of WHO guidelines. World Health Organization Think Tank meeting. 22 February 2015.
  31. ENCORE1 Study Group. Efficacy of 400 mg efavirenz versus standard 600 mg dose in HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive adults (ENCORE1): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. April 2014. 383(9927): 1474-82.
  32. ENCORE1 Study Group. Efficacy and safety of efavirenz 400 mg daily versus 600 mg daily: 96-week data from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority ENCORE1 study. Lancet Inf Dis. Published online 12 April 2015.
    http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(15)70060-5
  33. Dickinson L and Puls R on behalf of the ENCORE 1 sub-study group. Efavirenz (EFV) 400 versus 600 mg daily: results of the ENCORE1 intensive PK sub-study. CROI 2014. 3-6 March 2014; Boston, MA. Poster abstract 510.
    http://croiconference.org/sites/all/abstracts/510.pdf
  34. Murray J. FDA Perspective. 16th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV & Hepatitis Therapy. Washington DC. 26-28 May 2015. Session 7. Are we overdosing antivirals?
  35. Hill A, Ford N, Boffito M, et al. Does pregnancy affect the pharmacokinetics of efavirenz? AIDS 2014. June 19; 58 (10): 1542-3.
    http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2014/06190/Does_pregnancy_affect_the_pharmacokinetics_of.21.aspx
  36. Dooley KE, Denti P, Martinson N et al. Pharmacokinetics of efavirenz and treatment of HIV-1 among pregnant women with and without tuberculosis coinfection. J Infect Dis. (2015) 211 (2): 197-205.
    http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/211/2/197.abstract
  37. Olagunju, A, Bolaji, O, Amara, A, et al. Pharmacogenetics of pregnancy-induced changes in efavirenz pharmacokinetics. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 97: 298-306. March 2015.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cpt.43/abstract
  38. Hill A, Khoo S, Back D, et al. The drug interaction between rifampicin and efavirenz is time-dependent: systematic review of 12 pharmacokinetic studies. IAS 2014. Melbourne, Australia. 20-24 July 2014. Poster abstract MOPE040.
    http://pag.aids2014.org/EPosterHandler.axd?aid=7933
  39. Winston A, Amin J, Clarke A, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid exposure of efavirenz and its major metabolites when dosed at 400 mg and 600 mg once daily: a randomised controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. (2015) 60 (7): 1026-1032.
    http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/7/1026
  40. Raffi F, Pozniak AL, and Wainberg MA. Has the time come to abandon efavirenz for first-line antiretroviral therapy? Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2014; 69: 1742-1747.
    http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/7/1742.full
  41. Amole C. Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) at AFROCAB. Nairobi, Kenya. 21 January 2015.
  42. Barnhart M and, James D Shelton JD. ARVs: The next generation. Going boldly together to new frontiers of HIV treatment. Glob Health Sci Pract. 27 January, 2015.
    http://www.ghspjournal.org/content/3/1/1
  43. Walmsley SL, Antela A, Clumeck N, et al. Dolutegravir plus abacavir-lamivudine for the treatment of HIV-1 Infection. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1807-1818. 7 November 2013.
    http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1215541
  44. Walmsley S, Berenguer J, Khuong-Josses M, et al. Dolutegravir regimen statistically superior to efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine: 96-week results from the SINGLE study (ING114467). CROI 2014. Boston, MA. Poster abstract 543.
    http://www.croiconference.org/sessions/dolutegravir-regimen-statistically-superior-tenofoviremtricitabineefavirenz-96-wk-data
  45. Cahn P, Pozniak A, Mingrone H, et al. Dolutegravir versus raltegravir in antiretroviral-experienced, integrase-inhibitor-naive adults with HIV: week 48 results from the randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority SAILING study. Lancet. 2013 August. (382) 9893:700-708.
    http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)61221-0/abstract
  46. Castagna A, Maggiolo F, Penco G, et al. Dolutegravir in antiretroviral-experienced patients with raltegravir- and/or elvitegravir-resistant HIV-1: 24-week results of the phase III VIKING-3 study. J Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 1;210(3):354-62.
    http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/210/3/354.long
  47. FDA. Press release. FDA approves new drug to treat HIV infection. 12 August 2013.
    http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm364744.htm?source=govdelivery
  48. Dooley KE, Sayre P, Borland J, et al. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir given twice daily with rifampin or once daily with rifabutin: results of a phase 1 study among healthy subjects. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2013,62:21-27.
    http://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2013/01010/Safety,_Tolerability,_and_Pharmacokinetics_of_the.4.aspx
  49. Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry Steering Committee. Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry International Interim Report for 1 January 1989 through 31 July 2014. Wilmington, NC: Registry Coordinating Center; 2014.
    http://www.apregistry.com/forms/interim_report.pdf
  50. van Roey J, von Schoen-Angerer, Ford N et al. How developing world concerns need to be part of drug development plans: a case study of four emerging antiretrovirals. Drug Discov Today. 2008 Jul;13(13-14):601-5.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359644608001530
  51. CHAI. Press release. ViiV Healthcare and CHAI collaboration delivers second milestone with first filing with the FDA of generic dolutegravir by Aurobindo Pharma for the treatment of HIV. 26 May 2015.
    http://www.clintonhealthaccess.org/generic-dolutegravir/
  52. Medicines Patent Pool. Press release. Medicines Patent Pool, ViiV Healthcare sign licence for the most recent HIV medicine to have received regulatory approval. 1 April 2014.
    http://www.medicinespatentpool.org/medicines-patent-pool-viiv-healthcare-sign-licence-for-the-most-recent-hiv-medicine-to-have-received-regulatory-approval/
  53. Amole C. Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) at AFROCAB. Nairobi, Kenya. 21 January 2015.
  54. Gilead Sciences. Press Release. Gilead submits new drug application to U.S. Food and Drug Administration for tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based single tablet regimen for HIV. 6 November 2014.
    https://gilead.com/news/press-releases/2014/11/gilead-submits-new-drug-application-to-us-food-and-drug-administration-for-tenofovir-alafenamide-tafbased-single-tablet-regimen-for-hiv
  55. Gilead Sciences. Press Release. Gilead submits new drug application to U.S. Food and Drug Administration for fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide for HIV treatment. 7 April 2015.
    https://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2015/4/gilead-submits-new-drug-application-to-us-food-and-drug-administration-for-fixeddose-combination-of-emtricitabinetenofovir-alafenamide-for-hiv-treatment
  56. Gilead Sciences. Press Release. European Medicines Agency validates Gilead’s marketing application for fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide for HIV treatment. 28 May 2015.
    http://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2015/5/european-medicines-agency-validates-gileads-marketing-application-for-fixeddose-combination-of-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-for-hiv-treatment?
  57. Gilead Sciences. Press release. European Medicines Agency validates Gilead’s marketing application for fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide for HIV treatment.
    http://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2015/5/european-medicines-agency-validates-gileads-marketing-application-for-fixeddose-combination-of-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-for-hiv-treatment?
  58. Ruane PJ, DeJesus E, Berger D, et al. Antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of tenofovir alafenamide as 10-day monotherapy in HIV-1-positive adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63(4):449-455.
  59. Markowitz M, Zolopa A, Squares K, et al. Phase I/II study of the pharmacokinetics, safety and antiretroviral activity of tenofovir alafenamide, a new prodrug of the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir, in HIV-infected adults. J Animicrob Chemother. 2014 May;69(5):1362-9.
    http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/5/1362
  60. Ruane P, DeJesus E, Berger D, et al. Antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of tenofovir alafenamide as 10-day monotherapy in HIV-1-positive adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Aug1;63(4):449-55.
    http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2013&issue=08010&article=00006&type=abstract.
  61. i-Base/TAG estimate based on fixed cost of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate API, inactive ingredients, and packaging.
  62. Barnhart M and, James D Shelton JD. ARVs: The next generation. Going boldly together to new frontiers of HIV treatment. Glob Health Sci Pract. 27 January, 2015.
    http://www.ghspjournal.org/content/3/1/1
  63. Wohl D, Pozniak A, Thompson M, et al. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) in a single-tablet regimen in initial HIV-1 therapy. CROI 2015. 23-26 February 2015. Seattle, WA. Oral abstract 113LB.
    http://www.croiconference.org/sessions/tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-single-tablet-regimen-initial-hiv-1-therapy
  64. Sax PE, Saag MS, Yin MT, et al. Renal and bone safety of tenofovir alafenamide vs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. CROI 2015. 23-26 February 2015. Seattle, WA. Oral abstract 143 LB.
    http://www.croiconference.org/sessions/renal-and-bone-safety-tenofovir-alafenamide-vs-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
  65. World Health Organization. WHO informal consultation on medium- and long-term priorities for ARV drug optimization. (Montreux, Switzerland, 29-31 May 2012). http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/meetingreports/think_tank/en/index.html
  66. The Second Conference on Antiretroviral Drug Optimization (CADO 2) meeting report. July 2013.
  67. National Institutes of Health (US). Switch study to evaluate F/TAF in HIV-1 positive participants who are virologically suppressed on regimens containing FTC/TDF.
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02121795
  68. National Institutes of Health (US). Switch study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir alafenamide (FTC/RPV/TAF) fixed dose combination (FDC) in HIV-1 positive adults who are virologically suppressed on emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/RPV/TDF).
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02345252
  69. Amole C. Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) at AFROCAB. Nairobi, Kenya. 21 January 2015.
  70. Katlama C, Esposito R, Gatell JM, et al. Efficacy and safety of TMC114/ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV patients: 24-week results of POWER 1. AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4):395-402.
    http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2007&issue=02190&article=00001&type=abstract
  71. Haubrich R, Berger D, Chiliade P, et al. Week 24 efficacy and safety of TMC114/ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV patients. AIDS 2007 Mar 30; 21(6) :F11-8.
    http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2007&issue=03300&article=00002&type=abstract
  72. Molto J, Valle M, Ferrer E, et al. Reduced darunavir dose is as effective in maintaining HIV suppression as the standard dose in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. 15th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV and Hepatitis Therapy. 19-21 May 2014. Washington, DC. Oral abstract O_02.
    http://regist2.virology-education.com/2014/15HIVHEP_PK/3_Molto.pdf
  73. Lanzafame M, Lattuada E, Rigo F, et al. Efficacy of a reduced dose of darunavir/ritonavir in a cohort of antiretroviral naive and experienced HIV-infected patients: a medium-term follow-up. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2015 Feb;70(2):627-30.
    http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/70/2/627
  74. Amole C. Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) at AFROCAB. Nairobi, Kenya. 21 January 2015.
  75. National Institutes of Health (US). Open-label study of dolutegravir (DTG) or efavirenz (EFV) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – tuberculosis (TB) co-infection.
    http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02178592
  76. National Institutes of Health (US). A study to determine safety and efficacy of dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine (DTG/ABC/3TC) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive women (ARIA).
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01910402
  77. National Institutes of Health (US). ING200336, Pharmacokinetic and safety study in pregnant women with human immuno virus infection.
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02075593
  78. National Institutes of Health (US). Safety and pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in pregnant HIV mothers and their neonates: A pilot study (DolPHIN1).
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02245022
  79. National Institutes of Health (US). Pharmacokinetic study of antiretroviral drugs and related drugs during and after pregnancy.
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00042289
  80. Pharmacokinetics of newly developed ANtiretroviral agents in HIV-infected pregNAnt women (PANNA)
    http://www.pannastudy.com
  81. National Institutes of Health (US). Switch study to evaluate F/TAF in HIV-1 positive participants who are virologically suppressed on regimens containing FTC/TDF
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02121795
  82. National Institutes of Health (US). Switch study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir alafenamide (FTC/RPV/TAF) fixed dose combination (FDC) in HIV-1 positive adults who are virologically suppressed on emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/RPV/TDF).
    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02345252
  83. Pozniak A. How can we evaluate simple sequences of first and second-line treatment in low-income countries? IAS 2014. Melbourne. 20-25 July 2014. Workshop presentation TUWS1105.
    http://pag.aids2014.org/session.aspx?s=1967
    http://pag.aids2014.org/PAGMaterial/PPT/1486_1326/melbourne_trials_pozniak_july14.pptx
  84. Paton N, Kityo C, Hoppe A, et al. Assessment of second-line antiretroviral regimens for HIV therapy in Africa. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:234-247.
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  85. Amin J, Boyd MA, Kumarasamy N, et al. Raltegravir non-inferior to nucleoside based regimens in SECOND-LINE therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir over 96 weeks: a randomised open label study for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 27;10(2):e0118228.
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  86. Clinton Health Access Initiative. ARV Market Report. Issue 5. December 2014.
    http://www.clintonhealthaccess.org/news-and-information/ARV-Market-Report-Dec2014
  87. Smart T. Weak rand means South Africa pays more for ARVs in the latest tender. NSP Review Edition 12. 10 June 2015.
    http://www.nspreview.org/2015/06/10/weak-rand-means-south-africa-pays-more-for-arvs-in-latest-tender/
  88. Sterling T. Teva bosses issue riposte to Mylan, praise takeover plan. Reuters. 8 June 2015.
    http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/08/us-mylan-m-a-teva-idUSKBN0OO1O320150608