Risk of opportunistic infections by CD4 count and effect of ARV treatment
This table summarises the OIs and coinfections discussed in section 5, together with the impact of ARV treatment.
Table: OIs and coinfections and the impact of ARVs
|Opportunistic infection||CD4 risk level (cells/mm3)||Prophylaxis||Protection returns after ARVs increase CD4 count|
|Cancer: sarcoma and lymphoma||Varies. Can be any CD4. NHL usually 200 or less||None||Varies depending on lymphoma. KS can resolve on ARVs alone.|
|Hepatitis B and C||Any CD4||None for hepatitis C. Vaccination for hepatitis B.||No, but response to hepatitis C treatment is stronger|
|TB (lungs)||500 or less||No*||No|
|Candida and other skin problems. Herpes||300 or less||No*||Yes|
|Gut infections: giardia, cryptosporidia, microsporidia||300 or less||None, care with food and water etc||Yes|
|Wasting syndrome||300 or less usually||None||Yes|
|PCP||200 or less||Yes||Yes|
|Toxoplasmosis||200 or less||Yes||Yes|
|Cryptococcal meningitis||100 or less||Sometimes*||Yes|
|MAI/MAC||100 or less||No*||Yes|
|CMV||50 or less||No*||Yes|
* Drugs can be used for prophylaxis, but risks of side effects and developing resistance usually outweight benefits of protection.
Last updated: 22 July 2009.