This booklet is about changing HIV treatment because of drug resistance.

It includes:

  • When you might need to change treatment and why.
  • Which tests are used and what the results mean.
  • How to choose your next meds.
  • How to make sure the next treatment will work.

It includes information about:

  • Drug resistance, and
  • New drugs and other research.

This 15th edition has been revised and updated throughout. HIV treatment in the UK is now very effective.

  • Most people starting treatment get an undetectable viral load with their first combination. Only about 1 in 20 people (5%) need to change because viral load does not reach undetectable.
  • Also, less than 1 in 20 people (5%) who are on stable treatment need to change each year due to resistance.
  • In 2017, most people on their second or third combinations still have new drugs to use that will work.
  • Only a few people have resistance to all or nearly all drugs. In this case, information about new drugs is essential. And some new drugs are in development.

This booklet includes information on all these different situations.

The information is based on UK and European treatment guidelines:

Changes to this edition

Changes to this edition are mainly minor.

The most significant changes are about new drugs and ongoing research.

Last updated: 1 January 2018.