Changing ART: what to do if viral load rebounds

This is a resource about changing HIV treatment (ART) and drug resistance. (August 2021).

This covers about 50 pages online (many of them are short). The PDF booklet is an 8-page summary with links to the online sections.



1. Reasons to change and viral load

2. Reasons a combination can fail

3. Adherence and monitoring tests

4. When to change… which drugs?

Changing treatment to avoid side effects

CD4 and viral load results

ARV treatment history

Further information





Tables and diagrams


This guide was written and compiled by Simon Collins for HIV i-Base. Thanks to the advisory group of HIV positive people and healthcare professionals for comments and to MAC AIDS FUND for funding this publication.

About our guides

Information about how we produced this guide and the importance of using language that is direct and easy to understand.

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Last updated: 1 August 2021.