Q and A

Question

What is a normal CD4 count, CD4% and CD4:CD8 ratio?

Answer

CD4 cells are a type of blood cell that is part of your immune system. They are a type of white blood cell (lymphocyte). CD4 cells are sometimes called T-helper cells or T-cells

There are two main types of T-cells.

  1. CD4 cells, also called T4 cells, are “helper” cells. They lead the attack against infections.
  2. CD8 cells, (T8 cells), are “suppressor” cells that complete the immune response. CD8+ cells can also be “killer” cells that kill cancer cells and other cells that are infected by a virus.

CD4 and CD8 counts

The normal ranges for CD4 and CD8 counts vary depending on the lab and test. On average, the normal CD4 range for an HIV negative person is between 460 and 1600. This is an average. Anywhere in this range is fine.

Although generally a higher CD4 is good, an HIV negative person with a normal CD4 count of 1200 is not more healthy than someone whose normal count is 400.

A normal CD8 range is from 150 to 1000. This test is not really used so much for monitoring HIV. It is more important to know your CD4 count than your CD8 count.

The exact CD4 count is not so important. CD4 counts can vary from day to day and even from hour to hour. So the general CD4 result is more important than the exact number.

If you get a CD4 count that is ever unexpectedly high or low, then your CD4% (CD4 percentage) will indicate if this is a real change. This percentage is more stable than the exact CD4 count.

CD4 percentage (CD4%)

The CD4 percentage refers to percentage of total lymphocytes that are CD4 cells. If your test reports CD4% = 34%, that means that 34% of your lymphocytes are CD4 cells.

The average normal CD4% for HIV negative adults is about 40%. However, as with CD4 counts and other test, the range for a “normal” result in an HIV negative person is also wide – from about 25% to 65%.

CD4:CD8 ratio

The CD4:CD8 ratio is also sometimes used, but less often. This is a measure of how balanced your immune function is. This calculated by dividing the CD4 result by the CD8 result.

In HIV negative people, the normal range for the CD4:CD8 ratio is between 0.9 and 1.9. This means that there are about 1 to 2 CD4 cells for every CD8 cell.

When not on HIV treatment, just like the CD4 count and CD4%, the CD4:8 ratio drops over time. Eventually, unless you start treatment, there will be more CD8 cells than CD4 cells (i.e. the ratio drops to less than 1.0).

Recent studies have suggested that the CD4:8 ratio might be more accurate than the CD4 count at predicting future risk in people whose CD4 count is high (above 350 cells/mm3).

Other studies have shown that starting ART soon after HIV infection has a much higher chance of keeping the CD4:CD8 ratio higher than 1.0.

Note: this answer was updated in September 2014 and December 2016 from a post that was originally published in December 2006.

153 comments

  1. Simon Collins

    Hi Johnson. Unfortunately, you can’t tell from a CD4 count when someone became HIV positive. As any CD4 count higher than 500 is strong and good, this shows that HIV hasn’t had much impact yet. A small number of people however have a strong immune response to HIV and they keep a high CD4 count for many years.

  2. Johnson

    Someone with cd4 count of 848 is a newly infected person

  3. phd positive

    i stated with a cd4 of 97 and vl in the millions 2 years later i am UD and cd4 844

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