Four excellent articles have been recently posted online by this leading resource.
The gastrointestinal tract in HIV-1 infection: questions, answers, and more questions! – Saurabh Mehandru The GI tract is targeted during all stages of HIV disease, and this is especially so during acute and early HIV infection. CD4 cells are preferentially lost from the GI tract within weeks of HIV infection. Despite long-term antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ T cell reconstitution remains deficient in the GI tract in spite of the reconstitution seen in the peripheral blood.
HIV-1 integrase inhibitors – Teresa Evering and Martin Markowitz The integrase inhibitors are a welcome addition to the treatment armamentarium for HIV/AIDS in treatment-experienced patients failing available antiretroviral regimens. The promising efficacy and tolerability profile of the integrase inhibitors, absence of cross-resistance with other antiretroviral classes, and demonstrated synergism of the integrase inhibitors in combination with approved antiretroviral agents place them in a position to become important components of effective combination antiretroviral regimens in individuals living with HIV/AIDS.
Osteoporosis and adrenal insufficiency – Todd T. Brown The care of HIV-infected patients has become increasingly complex. Endocrine problems, such as osteoporosis and AI, have been frequently reported in the HAART era. Additional considerations may be required regarding the etiologies, diagnosis, and treatment compared with the general population. Further research is required to understand the intricacies of these problems in HIV-infected patients in order to provide optimal care.
Update on CCR5 inhibitors: scientific rationale, clinical evidence, and anticipated uses – Athe Tsibris The CCR5 antagonists are a welcome addition to the therapeutic armamentarium available for antiretroviral-experienced patients. Currently, their use in antiretroviral-naive patients should be restricted to enrollment in ongoing or planned clinical trials. The CCR5 antagonist maraviroc is FDA-approved for treatment-experienced patients with R5 virus (only), and no patient should receive maraviroc without first undergoing a tropism assay.