Free journal articles
Evidence for the innate immune response as a correlate of protection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 highly exposed seronegative subjects (HESN).
Tomescu C et al. Clinical & Experimental Immunology. Published online: 17 March 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04379.x
The description of highly exposed individuals who remain seronegative (HESN) despite repeated exposure to HIV-1 has heightened interest in identifying potential mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance. HIV-specific humoral and T cell-mediated responses have been identified routinely in HESN subjects, although it remains unknown if these responses are a definitive cause of protection or merely a marker for exposure.
Approximately half of HESN lack any detectible HIV-specific adaptive immune responses, suggesting that other mechanisms of protection from HIV-1 infection also probably exist. In support of the innate immune response as a mechanism of resistance, increased natural killer (NK) cell activity has been correlated with protection from infection in several high-risk cohorts of HESN subjects, including intravenous drug users, HIV-1 discordant couples and perinatally exposed infants.
This review highlights the most current evidence in HESN subjects supporting the role of epithelial microenvironment and the innate immune system in sustaining resistance against HIV-1 infection.
The authors argue that as a front-line defence the innate immune response determines the threshold of infectivity that HIV must overcome to establish a productive infection.
Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of expanding harm reduction and antiretroviral therapy in a mixed HIV epidemic: a modeling analysis for Ukraine
A cost-effectiveness study by Sabina Alistar and colleagues evaluates the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of different levels of investment in methadone, ART, or both, in the mixed HIV epidemic in Ukraine.
A randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of counseling and alarm device on HAART adherence and virologic outcomes
Michael Chung and colleagues show that intensive early adherence counseling at HAART initiation resulted in sustained, significant impact on adherence and virologic treatment failure, whereas use of an alarm device had no effect.
HIV-1 drug resistance emergence among breastfeeding infants born to HIV-infected mothers during a single-arm trial of triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a secondary analysis
Analysis of a substudy of the Kisumu breastfeeding trial by Clement Zeh and colleagues reveals the emergence of HIV drug resistance in HIV-positive infants born to HIV-infected mothers treated with antiretroviral drugs.
Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeedingthe Kisumu breastfeeding study, Kenya: a clinical trial
Timothy Thomas and colleagues report the results of the Kisumu breastfeeding study, Kenya, a single-arm trial that assessed the feasibility and safety of a triple-antiretroviral regimen to suppress maternal HIV load in late pregnancy.