Paediatric antiretroviral pipeline: update on etravirine and maraviroc
Polly Clayden, HIV i-Base
Data were presented at the paediatric workshop and IAS 2011describing recent developments in the paediatric pipeline.
Thomas Kakuda from Tibotec showed pharmacokinetic (PK) data of the NNRTI etravirine (ETR) in treatment experienced children and adolescents aged 6 to <18 years. [1, 2]
These 24-week results are from PIANO (Pediatric trial with Intelence as an Active NNRTI Option). PIANO is an ongoing Phase II, open label trial looking at the safety, efficacy and PK of ETR 5.2mg/kg bid (maximum dose 200mg bid).
In this study, 101 children (6 to <12 years, n=41) and adolescents (12 to <18 years, n=60) received ETR plus background regimen of a boosted protease inhibitor plus nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors with optional enfuvirtide and/or raltegravir for 48 weeks. The trial participants received 25mg and 100mg tablets of ETR.
Sparse samples for population PK were taken at weeks 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48. At week 24 two samples were collected, a trough and one at least an hour after ETR dose. ETR plasma concentrations were measured using a validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry assay.
The investigators developed a paediatric population PK model based on previous adult modelling and supplemented with rich and sparsely sampled PK data from TMC125-C126 [HTB ref] and PIANO respectively. They used the model to determine ETR AUC12h and C0h for all participants enrolled in PIANO up to 24 weeks.
There were 476 plasma concentration time samples available from 101 participants completing 24 weeks. There was an overall mean (SD) AUC12h and C0h of 5236 (+4314) ng*h/mL and 347 (+342) ng/mL respectively. In children in the younger age group these values were 5764 (+4044) ng*h/mL and 381 (+321) ng/mL. In adolescents they were 4834 (+4483) ng*h/mL and 323 (+357) ng/mL respectively. Adult reference values from the DUET trial were 5506 (+4710) ng*h/mL and 393 (+391) ng/mL for AUC12 and C0h respectively.
The investigators observed slightly lower exposures in the adolescents compared to the adults despite the majority (93%) of adolescents receiving the adult ETR dose of 200mg bid.
A dose of 5.2 mg/kg ETR is expected to be recommended for this population.
A related poster authored by Gareth Tudor Williams and colleagues described safety and efficacy from the same study.  The incidence of serious adverse events (AEs, grade 3 or 4) was low. A total of eight participants discontinued the trail due to AEs, this occurred more frequently in the older (n=6) than younger (n=2) age group. The most common AEs were upper respiratory tract infection (n=27) and rash (n=23).
Approximately half (n=51) of participants achieved a viral load <50 copies/mL. Response rates were higher in children than adolescents, with 24/41 (59%) achieving an undetectable viral load compared to 28/60 (47%). Response was similar in participants in both age groups considered adherent (measured by pill count and questionnaire) compared to non-adherent, respectively 48% (<95% adherent) compared to 53% (>95% adherent).
Of 28 participants with available genotype results at the time of virological failure, 54% developed NNRTI resistance mutations, mainly Y181C, E138A and V901.
Carlo Giaquinto and colleagues presented preliminary PK data for the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) in children and adolescents aged 2 to <18 years. [4, 5]
Data are from Study A4001031 – an ongoing open-label, non-comparative, multi-centre study in two stages (1: dose finding; 2: safety/efficacy) in treatment-experienced children, infected with CCR5-tropic HIV-1, receiving MVC 40-450 mg BID with optimised background therapy (OBT).
MVC PK were determined at Week 2. Participants (n=31) were stratified into four age cohorts. They were dosed twice daily. The initial dosing was calculated according to body surface area (BSA) with adjustments to take into account interactions between MVC and OBT (adult-recommended doses with/without CYP3A4 inhibitors/inducers).
Doses were adjusted and PK reevaluated if average concentrations (Cavg) at week 2 were <100 ng/mL. Cavg was estimated from AUC (AUC12h) calculated from seven samples taken over 12 hours.
The investigators reported, out of 22 participants receiving MVC with a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor (protease inhibitor based regimens). Only one failed to meet the PK target with the initial dose (this was due to poor adherence). But all five participants who did not receive a protease inhibitor (two nevirapine based regimens; two raltegravir based regimens; one NRTI based regimen) needed at least twice the initial MVC dose.
At the time of enrolment into stage 2, one participant did not meet the target after two dose adjustments but responded well clinically so was therefore included in the PK analysis. See Table 1: Preliminary PK results for maraviroc in children and adolescents aged 2 to <18 years.
|Cohort 1 (n=2)||Cohort 2 (n=10)||Cohort 3 (n=5)||Cohort 4 (n=12)|
|Age (years)||2 to <6||6 to <12||6 to <12||12 to <18|
|Cavg, geometric mean (ng/mL)||178 (n=2)||247 (n=10)||221 (n=5)||242 (n=9)|
The authors concluded that these preliminary data show that BSA-based dosing of MVC with CYP3A4 inhibitors provides MVC exposures associated with near- maximal efficacy (Cavg>100 ng/mL) in all age groups studied. But they noted that additional PK analyses are required to evaluate appropriate dosing when MVC is administered without CYP3A4 inhibitors in children.
A second poster from the same group showed safety and efficacy from the same study. 
At the time of analysis 35 children had been randomised (n=2, n=12, n=6 and n=15 in cohorts 1 to 4 respectively) and had received at least one dose of MVC. The median duration of treatment was 396, 493, 435 and 211 days in cohorts 1 to 4 respectively. The investigators observed 101 non-serious AEs in 21 patients; they considered 17 of these in 8 patients to be treatment related. Of those with elevated liver function test results, none were of grade 3 or higher. There were 8 serious adverse events of which none were judged to be treatment related and all resolved. There were no deaths.
Viral load <50 copies was achieved by 17/24 (71%) and 11/17 (65%) of participants at weeks 24 and 48 respectively. Five participants had virological failure; in four, this was due to poor adherence. The fifth had emergence of dual-mixed virus and developed 3TC resistance.
Enrollment in this study is continuing and long-term data will be collected and analysed.
- Kakuda TN et al. Population pharmacokinetics of etravirine in HIV-1 infected treatment experienced children and adolescents (6 to <18 years). 3rd International workshop on HIV paediatrics. 15-16 July 2011. Rome, Italy. Oral abstract PP_1.(PDF)
- Kakuda TN et al. Population pharmacokinetics of etravirine in HIV-1 infected treatment experienced children and adolescents (6 to <18 years). 6th IAS Conference on HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. 17-20 July 2011. Rome, Italy. Poster abstract TULBPE026.
- Tudor-Willaims G et al. Safety and efficacy of etravirine in HIV-1-infected, treatment-experienced children and adolescents (6-17 years): week 24 primary analysis of the phase II PIANO study. 6th IAS Conference on HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. 17-20 July 2011. Rome, Italy. Poster abstract TULBPE027.
- Vourvahis M et al. Maraviroc (MVC) pharmacokinetics (PK) in CCR5-tropic HIV-1-infected children aged 2 to < 18 years: preliminary results from study A4001031. 3rd International workshop on HIV paediatrics. 15-16 July 2011. Rome, Italy. Oral abstract PP_4. (PDF)
- Vourvahis M et al. Maraviroc (MVC) pharmacokinetics (PK) in CCR5-tropic HIV-1-infected children aged 2-< 18 years: preliminary results from study A4001031. 6th IAS Conference on HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. 17-20 July 2011. Rome, Italy. Poster abstract MOPE232.
- Giaquinto et al. Safety and efficacy of Maraviroc (MVC) in CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infected children aged 2 to <18 years. 3rd International workshop on HIV paediatrics. 15-16 July 2011. Rome, Italy. Poster abstract P_51. Also presented at the 6th IAS Conference on HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. 17-20 July 2011. Rome, Italy. Poster abstract MOPE237.