icterus – medical term for jaundice (yellowing skin)
IDU – injecting drug user
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome – see: IRIS
immune system – the system that your body uses to fight infections.
In utero is within the uterus or womb before the onset of labour.
in vitro – a study in a test tube. Literally, ‘in glass’.
in-vivo – a study carried out in humans.
induction (in the liver) – refers to the body processing a drug more quickly by inducing (or increasing) more of the enzymes that clear the drug. This leads to lower drug levels.
informed consent – a document that every person who participates in research is required to sign before entering the study. It outlines the details of a the study, including the known risks and benefits or any intervention. It also explains what is required during the study in terms of additional tests and clinic visits.
inhibition (in the liver) – refers to the body processing a drug more slowly by inhibiting (or reducing) the enzymes that clear the drug. This leads to higher drug levels.
INI (integrase inhibitor) – type of HIV drug.
insulin – a hormone that helps the body turn sugar into energy. Low insulin sensitivity is when the body uses insulin less well than usual (this is also called insulin resistance).
interaction – when two drugs react to increase or decrease one or both drugs, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful.
interferon - see pegylated interferon.
Intermediate level resistance – when a drug still has some impact on HIV, but when this is reduced (compared to wild-type HIV) because there is some drug resistance.
internal fetal labour monitoring - where an electrode is inserted through the vagina and placed on the baby’s scalp to record the baby’s heart rate during labour.
iPrEP (intermittent Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) – using HIV drugs to before a possible exposure to HIV, to reduce the chance of infection. iPrEP refers to taking a reducing dosing shecdule based on when you are likely to be exposed. PrEP usually refers to a daily treatment.