integrase inhibitor

integrase inhibitor – a type of HIV drug that stops HIV genetic material from ‘integrating’ into the DNA in a cell. This is a relatively new family of HIV drugs. Raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir are all integrase inhibitors.

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome – see: IRIS

Intermediate level resistance

Intermediate level resistance – when a drug still has some impact on HIV, but when this is reduced (compared to wild-type HIV) because there is some drug resistance.


icterus – medical term for jaundice (yellowing skin)

informed consent

informed consent – a document that every person who participates in research is required to sign before entering the study. It outlines the details of a the study, including the known risks and benefits or any intervention. It also explains …


iPrEP (intermittent Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) – using HIV drugs to before a possible exposure to HIV, to reduce the chance of infection. iPrEP refers to taking a reducing dosing shecdule based on when you are likely to be exposed. PrEP usually …

In utero

In utero is within the uterus or womb before the onset of labour.


intrapartum refers to the last stages of during pregnancy when the baby is born. These are labour and delivery (or chold birth). Intrapartum can refer to both the baby and the mother. See: antepartum and postpartum.

IM (intra-muscular)

IM (intra-muscular) – injecting into a muscle. See IV (intravenous) and SC (sub-cutaneous).

IV (intravenous)

IV (intravenous) – injecting into a vein. See SC (sub-cutaneous) and IM (intra-muscular).


IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) – illnesses that occur when HIV treatment is started when the CD4 count is very low. IRIS occurs because the immune system quickly becomes stronger and identifies infections that it was previously too weak to fight. …

IQR (interquartile range)

IQR (inter-quartile range) – when using (median) average, the IQR gives an indication of the spread or range of results. Each quartile (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) represents 25% of the results. The IQR represents the middle 50% of the …

internal fetal labour monitoring

internal fetal labour monitoring – where an electrode is inserted through the vagina and placed on the baby’s scalp to record the baby’s heart rate during labour.


interferon – see pegylated interferon.


interaction – when two drugs react to increase or decrease one or both drugs, often in ways that are unexpected or potentially harmful.

ITT analysis

intent-to-treat analysis (ITT) and on-treatment analysis (OT) – two important ways that trial results are analysed. ITT includes all patients who entered the study and is more rigorous. OT only calculates the response rates for people still on the randomised …


insulin – a hormone that helps the body turn sugar into energy. Low insulin sensitivity is when the body uses insulin less well than usual (this is also called insulin resistance).

inhibition (in the liver)

inhibition (in the liver) – refers to the body processing a drug more slowly by inhibiting (or reducing) the enzymes that clear the drug. This leads to higher drug levels.

induction (in the liver)

induction (in the liver) – refers to the body processing a drug more quickly by inducing (or increasing) more of the enzymes that clear the drug. This leads to lower drug levels.


in-vivo – a study carried out in humans.

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