neonate – a baby that is 0 to 28 days old.


NRTI – Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, a type of HIV drug – also called ‘nuke’ or ‘nucleoside analogue’. 3TC (lamivudine). abacavir, AZT, FTC (emtricitabine), d4T (stavudine), ddI (didanosine) all belong to this class. Tenofovir DF and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) are a …


non-nuke – a common term for NNRTI.


nuke – a common term for NRTI


NNRTI – Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, a type of HIV drug – also called ‘non-nuke’. Efavirenz, nevirapine, rilpivirine and etravirine are all NNRTIs. Drug targets in the virus life cycle.


nucleotide – the building blocks of the genetic code (DNA/RNA). Also called a base.


nanotechnology – science working with tiny particles at the level of manipulating individual molecules. This is an exciting field of medicine. Drugs developed with nanotechnology would need much lower drug doses (hopefully cheaper and having fewer side effects) and would …

null hypothesis

null hypothesis – in a study this sometimes just refers to the hypothesis, but more specifically it refers the idea that any difference between 2 study groups has only occurred by chance.


nucleus – the central part of some cells that contains DNA.

NHL (Non-Hodgkins lymphoma)

NHL (Non-Hodgkins lymphoma) – a type of lymph cancer. Cancer: lymphoma and sarcoma


nausea – the feeling that you want to be sick (a feeling of wanting to vomit).  Nausea section in the side effect guide.

natural history

natural history – the pattern a disease follows if it is not treated. The natural history of HIV includes very high viral load in the first weeks or months of infection (seroconversion), a drop in CD4 counts that then recovers, …

NASBA (nucleic acid sequence based amplification)

NASBA (nucleic acid sequence based amplification) – a type of viral load test.


neutropenia – very low amount of neutrophils (neutrophils are white blood cells that fight bacterial infections).