Treatment training manual

Risk of opportunistic infections by CD4 count and effect of ARV treatment

This table summarises the OIs and coinfections discussed in section 5, together with the impact of ARV treatment.

Table: OIs and coinfections and the impact of ARVs

Opportunistic infection CD4 risk level (cells/mm3) Prophylaxis Protection returns after ARVs increase CD4 count
Cancer: sarcoma and lymphoma Varies. Can be any CD4. NHL usually 200 or less None Varies depending on lymphoma. KS can resolve on ARVs alone.
Malaria Any CD4 No* Yes
Hepatitis B and C Any CD4 None for hepatitis C. Vaccination for hepatitis B. No, but response to hepatitis C treatment is stronger
TB (lungs) 500 or less No* No
Candida and other skin problems. Herpes 300 or less No* Yes
Gut infections: giardia, cryptosporidia, microsporidia 300 or less None, care with food and water etc Yes
Wasting syndrome 300 or less usually None Yes
PCP 200 or less Yes Yes
Toxoplasmosis 200 or less Yes Yes
Cryptococcal meningitis 100 or less Sometimes* Yes
MAI/MAC 100 or less No* Yes
CMV 50 or less No* Yes

* Drugs can be used for prophylaxis, but risks of side effects and developing resistance usually outweight benefits of protection.

Last updated: 22 July 2009.