This booklet, updated in February 2013, about changing HIV treatment and drug resistance explains when and why treatment needs to be changed, which tests are used and what the results mean, how to choose drugs for the next combination and how to help make sure the next treatment will work well.

It also includes information about new drugs in development and other research.

Open publication as an online magazine.


Changing treatment and drug resistance

Resistance and adherence

What to do if viral load rebounds

Important monitoring tests

Why a combination can fail

Deciding on your next combination

Other treatment strategies

Changing treatment to avoid side effects

Expanded access and pipeline drugs

Non ARV drugs

Record your treatment

Further information


Credits and disclaimer

Tables and diagrams


This guide was written and compiled by Simon Collins for HIV i-Base. Thanks to the advisory group of HIV positive people and healthcare professionals for comments and to Monument Trust for funding this publication.

About our guides

Information about how we produced this guide and the importance of using language that is direct and easy to understand.

This includes information on how to write non technical medical information that may be useful as a resource for other organisations.

1 February 2013